Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946)
4th Chief of the Division of Forestry, 1898-1905
1st Chief of the Forest Service, 1905-1910
Gifford Pinchot, was born on August 11, 1865, in Simsbury, Connecticut. His
family were well-to-do upper-class merchants, politicians, and land owners. Pinchot,
as a young boy, took advantage of several opportunities to visit foreign countries,
as well as gain a good education at some of the best eastern schools. When he entered
Yale in 1885, his father asked a question, "How would you like to be a forester?"
When asked, not a single American had made forestry a profession. Pinchot stated,
"I had no more conception of what it meant to be a forester than the man in the
moon....But at least a forester worked in the woods and with the woods - and I loved
the woods and everything about them....My Father's suggestion settled the question
in favor of forestry."
Neither Yale nor any other university offered a degree or even a course in
forestry, so Pinchot after graduation decided to study the subject in Nancy, France.
After a year of school, he returned to the United States to prepare for his lifelong
work and interest. He worked as a resident forester for Vanderbilt's Biltmore Forest
Estate for three years. Several years later he became involved with the National
Forest Commission created by the National Academy of Sciences. He and several other
members traveled through the West during the summer of 1896 investigating forest
areas for possible forest reserves. Two years later, he was named chief of the Division
of Forestry. His friend Theodore Roosevelt was elevated into the Presidency by the
assassination of President McKinley.
The management of the forest reserves was transferred from the Department of
the Interior to Agriculture and the new Forest Service in 1905. The chief, or
forester, of the new Forest Service was Gifford Pinchot. Pinchot, with
Roosevelt's willing approval, restructured and professionalized the management
of the national forests, as well as greatly increased their area and number. He
had a strong hand in guiding the fledgling organization toward the utilitarian
philosophy of the "greatest good for the greatest number." Pinchot added the
phrase "in the long run" to emphasize that forest management consists of
long-term decisions. During his period in office, the Forest Service and the
national forests grew spectacularly. In 1905 the forest reserves numbered 60
units covering 56 million acres; in 1910 there were 150 national forests
covering 172 million acres. The pattern of effective organization and management
was set during Pinchot's administration, and "conservation" (an idea he
popularized) of natural resources in the broad sense of wise use became a widely
known concept and an accepted national goal..
The 1905 Use Book Committee.
Gifford Pinchot is generally regarded as the "father" of American conservation
because of his great and unrelenting concern for the protection of the American
forests. He was the primary founder of the Society of American Foresters, which
first met at his home in Washington in November 1900. He served as chief with great
distinction, motivating and providing leadership in the management of natural resources
and protection of the national forests. He continued as forester until 1910, when
he was fired by President Taft in a controversy over coal claims in Alaska. He was
replaced by Henry "Harry" S. Graves.
Gifford Pinchot wrote:
"When I came home not a single acre of Government, state, or private timberland
was under systematic forest management anywhere on the most richly timbered of all
continents....When the Gay Nineties began, the common word for our forests was "inexhaustible."
To waste timber was a virtue and not a crime. There would always be plenty of timber....The
lumbermen...regarded forest devastation as normal and second growth as a delusion
of fools....And as for sustained yield, no such idea had ever entered their heads.
The few friends the forest had were spoken of, when they were spoken of at all,
as impractical theorists, fanatics, or "denudatics," more or less touched in the
head. What talk there was about forest protection was no more to the average American
that the buzzing of a mosquito, and just about as irritating."
(From Breaking New Ground, Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998, page 27.)
"Without natural resources life itself is impossible. From birth to death,
natural resources, transformed for human use, feed, clothe, shelter, and transport
us. Upon them we depend for every material necessity, comfort, convenience, and
protection in our lives. Without abundant resources prosperity is out of reach."
(From Breaking New Ground, Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1998, page 505.)
The Pinchot family home at Grey Towers
Letter from Forest Service Chief Pinchot to Forest Supervisor Seth Bullock, 1905
A Primer of Forestry by Gifford Pinchot, (Parts I and II, 1903 and 1905)
The Use of the National Forest Reserves, 1905