Trails of the Past:
Historical Overview of the Flathead National Forest, Montana, 1800-1960


Abbreviations used in bibliography and citations:

FCLFlathead County Library, Kalispell, Montana
FNFFlathead National Forest
FNF AdjAdjustments files, Cultural Resources, Supervisor's Office, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, Montana
FNF Classclassification files, Cultural Resources, Supervisor's Office, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, Montana
FNF CRCultural Resources files, Supervisor's Office, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, Montana
FNF LandsLands files, Supervisor's Office, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, Montana
FRCFederal Records Center, Seattle, Washington
FSAFort Steele Archives, Fort Steele, British Columbia, Canada
GNPGlacier National Park library, West Glacier, Montana
GNPAGlacier National Park archives, West Glacier, Montana
GVRDGlacier View Ranger District files, Columbia Falls, Montana
HBCHudson's Bay Company archives, Winnipeg, Manitoba
HHRDHungry Horse Ranger District files, Hungry Horse, Montana
MHSMontana Historical Society library, Helena, Montana
MSUMontana State University library, Special Collections, Bozeman, Montana
NANational Archives, Washington, DC
NMFANorthern Montana Forestry Association papers, MSS 85, Mansfield Library, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana
R1 PRNorthern Region press releases, 1936-61, USDA Forest Service
RGrecord group
RORegional Office history files, USDA Forest Service, Missoula, Montana
RSrecord series
SBRDSpotted Bear Ranger District files, Spotted Bear Ranger Station, Montana
SKCCSalish-Kootenai Community College library, Pablo, Montana
SLRDSwan Lake Ranger District files, Bigfork, Montana
TLRDTally Lake Ranger District files, Whitefish, Montana
UMMansfield Library general collection, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana
UMAMansfield Library archives, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana
USDA FSUnited States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Note: Known repositories of the relatively difficult-to-find materials are listed at the end of the citations in square brackets.

Adams, Kramer A. Logging Railroads of the West. Seattle, WA: Superior Publishing Co., 1961. [FCL].

General history with excellent photographs. Has a list of logging railroads in Montana, including quite a number in the Flathead Valley, with years of operation and miles of track.

Alt, David and Donald W. Hyndman. Roadside Geology of Montana. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Co., 1986.

Includes an illustrated chapter on the geology of northwest Montana.

Alwin, John. "Patterns of Montana's Towns, 1860 to 1920." M. A. thesis, University of Montana, 1972. [UM].

______. "Anaconda Copper Mining Company Records, 1876-1974." MC 169, MHS.

______. "Another Emergency Job Completed." Northern District News 11 (10 April 1930):4.

______. "Appraisal of Damage Values, Halfmoon Fire." 1930, typewritten. F. H. Stoltze Land & Lumber Company files, Columbia Falls, MT.

______. "Area Lumber Output at New Record." Hungry Horse News, 13 January 1956:4.

______. "Areas for Our Use and Enjoyment." Daily Inter Lake, 23 April 1961:E5.

Arvidson, Alfred C. "History of the Hungry Horse Ranger District." 1967. [HHRD].

Athearn, Robert G. High Country Empire. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

Overview of the history of the Missouri River region, from the time of the first Euroamerican explorers to the 1950s.

Atkinson, Gail Shay and Jim. "Izaak Walton Inn." Copyright by authors, 1985. [FCL].

History of Essex and the Izaak Walton Inn, with some information on notables such as Slippery Bill Morrison.

Atwood, Wallace W. "Glacier National Park in Danger." National Parks Jan-March 1949:10-19.

Article by past president of the National Parks Association protesting the proposed dam at Glacier View, followed by a letter from the Association to the Army Corps of Engineers.

Ayres, H. B. "The Flathead Forest Reserve." Included in Twenty-First Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. Department of the Interior, part 5, Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1900:245-316. [UM].

Detailed report on the newly designated Flathead Forest Reserve. Includes maps, photographs, and a narrative description of the natural resources of the area (which includes the area that is today Glacier National Park).

Ayres, H. B. "The Lewis and Clarke Forest Reserve, Montana." Included in Twenty-First Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey, U. S. Department of the Interior, part 5, Forest Reserves. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1900:27-80. [UM].

Detailed report on the newly designated Lewis & Clarke Forest Reserve. Includes photographs and a narrative description of the natural resources of the area (which covers the area now considered the south half of the Flathead National Forest).

Baker, Robert D., et al. The National Forests of the Northern Region: Living Legacy. College Station, TX: Intaglio, Inc., 1993. [FNF CR].

History of Forest Service activities in the Northern Region. Primarily an administrative history, but also includes information on the general development of the northern Rockies. Some specific information on the Flathead National Forest, but most useful for putting developments on specific Forests into a larger perspective.

Barrows, J. S. Forest Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Northern Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station, Paper No. 28, 1951. [UM].

Contains maps and statistics concerning fires in Region 1, with the most information on 1931-1945. Good statistical information on the Flathead National Forest compared to other forests in the region.

Beals, Ralph L. "History of Glacier National Park with Particular Emphasis on the Northern Developments." Berkeley, CA: US Department of the Interior, 1935. [GNP].

Emphasis on fur trade history, with attempts to identify when trappers and traders first reached the area that is now Glacier National Park.

Beck, Ed, interview 31 March 1981. [FNF CR].

Beebe, Eva, "Summary of Interviews with Mrs. Eva Beebe in March, 1975, and an interview with her Grandson in 1974." [GNP].

Eva Beebe's husband Chaunce homesteaded on the west side of the North Fork of the Flathead beginning in 1908 and later worked for the National Park Service.

Benedict, Warren V. "History of White Pine Blister Rust Control - a Personal Account" (Washington, DC: USDA FS, 1981. [RO].

Good overview history of the white pine blister rust control effort from 1909 until 1967.

Benson, Jane Reed. "Thirty-Two Years in the Mule Business." Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, 1980. [UM].

History of the Remount Depot and winter range of Region One.

Bergman, Sharon. The Fabulous Flathead. Polson, MT: Treasure State Publishing Company, 1962. [FCL].

History of the Flathead Indian Reservation, prepared by the Reservation Pioneers, Inc., of Polson.

Bick, Patricia. "Homesteading on the North Fork in Glacier National Park." West Glacier, MT: Glacier National Park, 1986. [GNP].

Excellent study of homesteading in the North Fork, with descriptions of the physical remains. Covers the east side only of the North Fork valley.

Bierman, Henry. "Reminiscence." Ca. 1939. SC 30, MHS.

Biggar, Hugh J. "The Development of the Lower Flathead Valley." M. A. thesis, University of Montana, 1951. [FCL].

______. "Blackfeet Forest Reports." Northern Region News 6 (6 June 1934): 8.

Blake, C. D., "Flathead." Northern Region News 9 (21 September 1937):24.

Blake, C. D. "The Flathead National Forest and the Flathead Valley Then and Now." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936): 1-2.

Blakiston, Capt. Thomas. "Capt. Blakiston's Explorations in the Rocky Mountains." Occasional Papers of the Royal Artillery Institution 12 (May 1859):320-345. [FCL].

Bloom, C. P. "Jack Clack." Northern Region News 5 (6 July 1933): 1-4.

Boettcher, 'Packrat Arthur.' "A Prospector's Perspective on the Kootenai-Flathead Area." In Rock Mechanics. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1974. [FCL].

Bolle, Arnold William. "The Basis of Multiple Use Management of Public Lands in the North Fork of Flathead River, Montana." Ph. D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1959.

Important study of the North Fork of the Flathead, with good information on the timber industry and recreational use in the area.

Bolle, Arnold W. et al. The Economics of the Montana Forest Products Industry. Missoula, MT: Montana State University, Midwest Economic Study, 1964. [UM].

Bolle, Arnold W. "History and Development of the Forest Products Industry In Montana." Montana Business Quarterly 4 (summer 1966): 14-24.

Excellent summary of Montana's timber industry.

Bradeen, O. C. "New Fire-fighter's Bed." Northern Region News 3 (31 January 1931):5.

Braunberger, A. Barry and Thain White. "Joseph Howse's Journeys West of the Rocky Mountains." Washington Archaeologist 8 (April and July 1964):2-89.

Discusses the probable route of Hudson's Bay Company trader Joseph Howse the winter of 1810-11. Concludes that he did not build a trading post at the head of Flathead Lake.

______. "Brennen's Plum." Flathead Herald-Journal, 21 July 1898.

Brown, Nelson Courtlandt. Logging: Principles and Practices in the United States and Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1934. [UM].

Excellent summary, with photographs, of logging methods in 1934.

Brown, Nelson Courtlandt. Logging Transportation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1936. [UM].

Well-illustrated, detailed discussion of logging transportation methods in use in the United States and Canada in the 1930s.

Bryant, Ralph Clement. Logging: the Principles and General Methods of Operation in the United States. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1913. [UM].

Comprehensive treatment of logging methods in use in 1913 around the country. Well illustrated.

Buchholtz, Curtis W. "The Last Summer at Lake McDonald." Montana the Magazine of Western History 26 (autumn 1976):22-24. 1976b.

Buchholtz, C. W. Man In Glacier. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, 1976. 1976a.

Well-illustrated history of Glacier National Park, well illustrated. Covers the early explorations of the area as well as the administrative history of the Park itself.

Buchholtz, Curtis W. "W. R. Logan and Glacier National Park." Montana the Magazine of Western History 19 (summer 1969):3-17.

Discussion of the tenure of Logan as first superintendent of Glacier National Park, 1910-1911, and the conflicting mandate of both use and preservation of the new Park.

Buchholtz, C. W. "The Diary of Albert 'Death-on-the-Trail' Reynolds, Glacier National Park, 1912-1913." Montana the Magazine of Western History 35 (winter 1985):49-59.

Brief mention of Reynolds' early years as a Flathead Forest Reserve ranger.

Burk, Dale A. Great Bear, Wild River. Eureka, MT: Stoneydale Press, 1977.

Book advocating designation of the Great Bear Wilderness. Gives some history of the area.

Burlingame, Merrill G. The Montana Frontier. Helena: State Publishing Company, 1942.

Burlingame, Merrill G. and K. Ross Toole. A History of Montana. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc., 1957.

Good general history of Montana, beginning with geology and continuing on through post-World War II culture, education, etc.

Burnell, Fred. "History of Development of North Fork Flathead Road No. 210." Missoula, MT: USFS Region 1, 1980. [FNF CR].

Burnett, G. Wesly. "The Montana Forest Land Exchange: 1909-1918." Western Wildlands (fall 1982):11-13.

Butcher, Edward Bernie. "An Analysis of Timber Depredations in Montana to 1900." M. A. Thesis, University of Montana, 1967. [UM].

Excellent study of the large-scale illegal cutting of timber on public lands in Montana up to 1900. Includes some information on the Flathead Valley, although most concerns the Montana Improvement Company and Daly's operations in the Bitterroot Valley.

Butler, Ovid M. Rangers of the Shield: A Collection of Stories Written by Men of the National Forests of the West. Washington, DC: American Forestry Association, 1934.

Cahalane, Victor H., "The Evolution of Predator Control Policy in the National Parks." Journal of Wildlife Management 3 (July 1939):229-237.

Although it focuses on National Park Service policy, the article discusses popular attitudes and beliefs about predator control.

Cameron, Jenks. The Development of Governmental Forest Control in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1928. [UM].

Overview of the history of federal policy towards forested lands. Good section on the General Land Office and its relations with the Forest Service.

Campbell, Marjorie Wilkins. The North West Company. New York: 1957.

Overview of the history of the North West Company, useful for putting their fur trading activities in Montana into a larger perspective.

Carter, Richard L. "An Environmental Analysis of Winter Game Range in Western Montana." M. S. thesis, Montana State University, 1951. [UM].

Gives some historical information on the changing range and populations of elk and deer in western Montana.

Caywood, Janene, Theodore Catton, and James McDonald. Evaluation of Region 1 Forest Service-Owned Buildings for Eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places. Missoula, MT: Historical Research Associates, prepared for USDA Forest Service, 1991.

This report includes an overview of the history of Region One of the Forest Service, focussing on the administrative history, and an overview of the architectural trends represented by Forest Service buildings in the region. As part of the project, 31 properties on the Flathead National Forest were evaluated for eligibility to the National Register, and the necessary documentation was prepared for the 18 properties recommended as eligible for listing. This documentation contains excellent material on the history of the Forest and its buildings, some gleaned from interviews and from archival materials.

Chapman, Herman H. "Fires on the Flathead Forest in Montana." American Forestry 16 (November 1910):657-658.

Describes firefighting efforts in the Swan Valley and the South Fork during the 1910 fire season.

______. "Charles Jackson Hash." Northern Region News 4(21 July 1932): 1.

Cheney, Roberta. Place Names on the Face of Montana: the Story of Montana's Place Names. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1983.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin. The American Fur Trade in the Far West. Stanford, CA: Academic Reprints, 1954.

Originally published in 1902. Classic account of the American fur companies of the Missouri Valley and the Rocky Mountains. Very little specific mention of the northwest Montana area, as it was primarily Hudson's Bay Company (British) territory.

City of Kalispell. "8th Annual Water Department Annual Report." 1921. [FCL].

City of Kalispell. "13th Water Department Annual Report." 1926. [FCL].

Clack, John H. "The Long Talk." District One Bulletin 6 (January 1922):9.

Clack, John H. "An Old Time Ranger Meeting." District One Bulletin 7 (February 1923):6-8. 1923a.

Clack, John H. to Lloyd Hornby, 15 December 1923, Flathead National Forest. [FNF CR]. 1923b.

Very informative letter describing the years 1907-1913 on the Flathead National Forest, from the point of view of one of the first rangers in the area.

Clack, Jack. "More Bugs." Northern Region News 3 (20 February 1931):13.

Clark, F. G. "Some Preferences of Forest Visitors." Journal of Forestry 34 (September 1936): 840-843.

Discusses a 1935 survey of campground visitors on Montana's national forests.

Clary, David A. Timber and the Forest Service. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1986. [FCL].

This book covers the Forest Service's changing attitudes and policies towards timber management on the national level, with specific examples from various regions.

Clawson, Marion and Burhell Held. The Federal Lands: Their Use and Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1957. [UM].

Includes detailed discussion of trends in national forest management of resources such as grazing, timber sales, revenues, expenditures, etc.

Clepper, Henry. Professional Forestry in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johnson Hopkins Press, 1971.

Provides an excellent summary of fire control development, as well as legislation affecting national forests and information on how the federal government interacted with private and state foresters. Also traces the history of the conservation movement.

Coats, J. H. "Bud." "Communications in the National Forests of the Northern Region: a History of Telephone and Radio." Region One, USDA Forest Service, Missoula, MT, 1984. [RO].

This booklet provides excellent accounts from retirees of the benefits and disadvantages of the backcountry telephone lines and various radios. Good information on how the phone lines were built and maintained.

Cohen, Stan, and Miller, Don. The Big Burn: The Northwest's Forest Fire of 1910. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1978.

Cohen, Stan. A Pictorial History of Smokejumping. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1983.

Well-illustrated account of the development of the smokejumping program. Much information on Region One, some specifically related to the Flathead National Forest.

Cohen, Stan. The Tree Army: A Pictorial History of the Civiilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1980.

Excellent illustrations. Some good specific information on the CCC on the national level.

Connery, Robert H. Governmental Problems in Wild Life Conservation. New York: AMS Press, 1935.

Discussion of the various state and federal agencies involved in wildlife conservation.

Conrad, Ralph Marlin. Recreational Use and the 'Renewable' Resources, Swan River State Forest, Montana. M. S. thesis, Montana State University, 1964. [UM].

Contains an chronology of the petitions for and development of the Swan River Highway, and an explanation of the creation of the Swan River State Forest.

______. "Contractors High-Ball Clearing At Hungry Horse." Montana Treasure (August 1950):14-15. [FCL].

Article describing a new method contractors tried in clearing the timber on the Hungry Horse Dam reservoir.

Coon, Shirley Jay. "The Economic Development of Missoula, Montana." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1926. [UM].

This dissertation discusses Missoula's history in great detail. The early years (up to the 1890s) are particularly relevant for understanding the development of the Flathead Valley.

Cooney, Robert F. "Wild Area in the Making: Jewel Basin." Living Wilderness 28 (winter spring 1964):7-9.

Description of a trip to the Jewel Basin by some of the leaders of the movement to make it a wilderness area.

______. "Coram Camp One of Kind in Montana." Flathead Monitor, 24 January 1933:1.

______. "Corporate History." Ca. 1938, typewritten. [FCL].

Ten-page typewritten history of the Somers Lumber Company. Includes an excellent description of the logging practices and lumber production methods from 1900 until 1937.

Cotroneo, Ross Ralph. The History of the Northern Pacific Land Grant, 1900-1952. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Idaho, 1966.

Detailed discussion of the NPRR land-grant policies, primarily relating to land sold to settlers. Very little on land within forest reserves.

Cox, Thomas R., et al. This Well-Wooded Land: Americans and their Forests from Colonial Times to the Present. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Excellent overview of the changing uses of and attitudes toward forests in the United States.

Craney, Edmund B., and Martha Craney Wiberg. "Swan Lake, Montana, 1914-1919." Typewritten, 1978. [FCL].

Excellent history of the large Somers Lumber Company timber sale in the Swan Valley written by two of the children of the supervisor of the logging operations. Many photographs (photocopied) and good descriptions of logging methods.

Cultural Resource Site Files, Flathead National Forest (referred to by site numbers).

Culver, G. E. "Notes on a Little Known Region in Northwestern Montana." Trans. Wisconsin Academy Sciences, Arts & Letters 8 (1891): 187-205. [FCL].

Account of Lt. George Ahern's 1890 exploratory trip through the area that is now Glacier National Park and the North Fork.

Cunningham, R. N., S. V. Fullaway, Jr. and C. N. Whitney. Montana Forest and Timber Handbook. Missoula, MT: State University of Montana, 1926.

This forestry handbook gives a detailed description of the status of the state's timber industry and timber stands in the 1920s. Also includes a directory of sawmills and logging contractors throughout the state.

Cusick, Maurice. "History of the Stillwater State Forest." Typewritten, 1986. [FNF CR].

Maurice Cusick worked for the State forestry department from 1928 until 1952 and 1954 until 1975. This is an excellent personal account of his experiences on the Stillwater and Swan River Valley State Forests.

Cusick, Maurice, and Ruth Guinard. Interview with Gary McLean, 16 March 1981. [FNF CR].

Dana, Samuel Trask and Sally K. Fairfax. Forest and Range Policy: Its Development in the United States. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980. [FCL].

Indispensable, clearly written work on public land policy in the United States, much of it dealing with the Forest Service in the West.

Davis, Roy M., to Raymond Karr, 29 August 1980. [FNF CR].

DeSanto, Jerome. "Drilling at Kintla Lake: Montana's First Oil Well." Montana the Magazine of Western History 35 (winter 1985):24-37.

Detailed description of the oil companies and drilling in the Kintla Lake area of the North Fork of the Flathead.

DeSanto, Jerome S. "Uncle Jeff: Mysterious Character of the North Fork." Montana the Magazine of Western History 32 (winter 1982): 14-23.

______. "Development of Ora Star Meadows Mine." Flathead Monitor, 5 July 1934:8.

_____. "Diary of Dr. Augustus J. Thibodo of Northwest Exploring Expedition, 1859." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 31 (1940):287ff.

Douma, Don. "The History of Oil in Montana." Montana Magazine of Western History 3 (1953): 18-30.

Describes the Kintla Lake area oil boom of 1901.

Downes, Lee. Personal communication to Kathy McKay, 13 July 1994.

Dubofsky, Melvyn. We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969. [UM].

A detailed history of the Wobblies from ca. 1905-1945. Because it is an overview, it does not go into the lumber industry strikes in great detail.

Duncan, G. W. "Power-Driven Saw." Northern Region News 9 (21 January 1937):15-16.

Duncan, Tyson D. Untitled. Ca. 1923. [FCL].

Typewritten history of Duncan's experiences in the Flathead beginning in 1883.

Dunham, Harold H. Government Handout: A Study in the Administration of the Public Lands, 1875-1891. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.

Discussion of public land laws before the creation of the first Forest Reserves in 1891. Uses court records and newspapers, etc. Documents specific examples of fraud relating to the Timber and Stone Act (as well as other public land laws).

Ellison, Lincoln. "Trends of Forest Recreation in the United States." Journal of Forestry 40 (August 1942):630-638.

Elwood, Henry. Somers, Montana: The Company Town. Kalispell, MT: Thomas Printing, 1976. [FCL].

Detailed history of the Somers Lumber Company and the community it created. Also narratives about the IWW strikes in the area and about steamboat travel on Flathead Lake.

Elwood, Henry. Kalispell, Montana and the Upper Flathead Valley. Kalispell, MT: Thomas Printing, 1980. [FCL].

Standard, detailed history of the Flathead Valley, with good illustrations.

Elwood, Henry. Personal communication to Kathy McKay, 17 June 1994.

Elwood, Warren. Personal communication to Kathy McKay, 19 August 1994.

Ensign, Edgar T. "Report on the Forest Conditions of the Rocky Mountains." Washington, DC: USDA Forestry Division, Bulletin 2, 1889. [UM].

Report covering Montana and other Rocky Mountain states and territories. Fairly general, but some good information on dominant species and uses of timber in the territory.

Fahey, John. The Flathead Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974.

Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration. Montana: A State Guide Book. Helena, MT: Department of Agriculture, Labor and Industry, 1939.

Gives some information on public campgrounds on the Flathead National Forest.

Fernie Historical Association. "Backtracking with Fernie Historical Association." Lethbridge, Alberta: Lethbridge Herald, 1967. [FSA].

History of Fernie, B. C., with discussion of the coal fields.

Fernow, Bernhow Eduard. "Forestry Investigations and the Work of the Department of Agriculture, 1877-1899." 55th Cong., 3d sess. House doc. 181, v. 71, 1900.

Fickes, Clyde P. "Construction and Maintenance of Forest Improvements, Region One." USDA Forest Service, 1935. [FNF CR].

This book served as a guide for design of Region One buildings, and some of the plans were used by Flathead National Forest ranger districts.

Fickes, Clyde P. "Recollections." Missoula, MT: USDA, 1973.

Fickes worked on the Lewis and Clark and then the Flathead National Forests from 1907 until 1916. Good anecdotes about these early years on the Forests. Also some explanation of how he began to design ready-cut lookouts.

______. "The Flathead Coal." Missoula Gazette, 9 July 1892:1.

______. "Flathead Copper Mines." Whitefish Pilot, 29 May 1913:1.

______. "Flathead County, A Mighty Young Commonwealth." Inter Lake, 3 February 1893.

Flathead County Plat Room Records, Flathead County Courthouse, Kalispell, Montana.

Flathead County Superintendent of Schools. Sagas of Our Pioneers. Typewritten, 1956. [FCL].

A collection of essays on the history of the Flathead Valley and other areas of Montana. Some are reprints of articles written earlier, some are compiled from interviews with old-timers.

______. "Flathead Logger." Missoulian, 21 June 1978:16.

Flathead National Forest, Adjustments files. FNF CR.

Forest records on adjustments of boundaries of forest homesteads, 1910s through 1930s.

Flathead National Forest, Classification files. FNF CR.

Records on classification of Forest land as agricultural or better suited for other purposes. Includes case files on particular homesteads, ca. 1906-1935.

______. Flathead National Forest, employee log book, July 9, 1907 - February 1909. Photocopied, author not identified. [FNF CR].

Unlike many other log books, this one sometimes becomes more of a personal diary than a recitation of tasks accomplished and is therefore very useful for shedding light on the daily lives of early Forest Service employees. The employee worked on the Middle Fork and in the Swan Valley.

Flathead National Forest. "Extensive Reconnaissance, Flathead National Forest." 1914. [FNF CR].

Flathead National Forest. Forest Plan, Flathead National Forest: EIS on the Flathead National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan. Kalispell, MT: Flathead National Forest, 1985. Flathead National Forest. "General Report Covering Administrative Sites on Flathead National Forest." 1918. [FNF CR].

Invaluable report with detailed information on each of the 10 ranger districts and their administrative sites on the Flathead National Forest as of 1918. Maps and information on improvements (buildings, fences, etc.) included. Number of people working at each site detailed and justified.

Flathead National Forest. "Guide to the Mission Mountains Wilderness." Typewritten, June 1980. [FCL].

Gives a fairly detailed history of the area.

Flathead National Forest. "Informational Report, Flathead National Forest." 1939. [FNF CR].

This typewritten report was written to familiarize Forest Service guards with the answers to questions commonly asked by tourists. Contains information on the past and current management of national forests lands, specifically the Flathead.

Flathead National Forest, Lands files. FNF.

Files on land exchanges and boundary questions through the 1950s.

Flathead National Forest. "Report on South Fork Game Studies, 1935-1936." Flathead National Forest, 1936. [FNF CR].

Detailed description of findings of game studies based at Big Prairie and Spotted Bear Ranger Stations. Photographs included.

Flathead National Forest. "Summary of Proposed Amendment 16, Draft Environmental Impact Statement." Kalispell: Flathead National Forest, June 1992.

Flathead National Forest. "Timber Management Plans." 1949-1961. [FNF CR].

These management plans for the working circles on the Forest give excellent historical information. Each working circle developed its own plan(s), generally about 100 pp. long. The years of the plans are as follows: Coram Working Circle (1955 and 1961); Glacier View Working Circle (1949 and 1959); Kalispell Working Circle (1960); and Swan Working Circle (1960).

Flathead National Forest. "Transportation System Inventory Record, Forest Development Roads and Trails." Revised June 30, 1955. [FNF CR].

______. "Flathead's Mining Development." Flathead Monitor, 18 June 1931:5.

Flint, Kedric W. and Nona D. Paul. "Early History of Bigfork and Surrounding Communities." Typewritten, 1957. [FCL].

Local history, mostly short statements about early settlers, where they lived, and "firsts."

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. The Rebel Girl: An Autobiography. NY: International Publishers, 1955. [UM].

Autobiography of Flynn, a Communist organizer. Brief mention of a visit to Kalispell during the IWW 1909 lumber strike.

Foltz, Frank. "Ranger Station Headquarters." Northern Region News 9 (21 May 1937):25-26.

Fredlund, Dale E. and Lynn B. "Archaeological Survey of the Three Forks of the Flathead River, Montana." Archaeology in Montana 12 (April-September 1971): 1-58.

Fregren, Donald Harvey. "Timber Policies of Canada." Montana State University, M S. thesis, 1960. [UM].

Describes current (ca. 1960) forestry practices in each of Canada's provinces.

Fremming, R. W. Untitled. Northern Region News 3 (28 February 1931):8.

Frohlicher, John C. "The Mule Express." American Forests 36 (1930):456-458.

Description of the replacement of packhorses by mules in Region One, written by a Flathead National Forest employee.

Frohlicher, John C. "A Letter from an Ex-Smokechaser to His Brother." District One Bulletin 13 (August 1929):9-10.

Frohlicher, S. V. Driftwood from the Flathead. Great Falls, MT: Licini's Print Shop, 1986. [FCL].

Anecdotes from the early days in the Flathead Valley told by the son of two early settlers. Includes description of Forest Service activities in the South Fork.

Funk, Adam, interview with Gary McLean, 2 April 1981. [FNF CR].

______. "G. W. Slack Founded Early Mill." Hungry Horse News, 29 July 1987:11.

Gaffney, William S. "The Effects of Winter Elk Browsing, South Fork of the Flathead River, Montana." Journal of Wildlife Management 5 (October 1941):427-453.

Excellent information on the elk population in the South Fork and reasons for the increase in the 1930s. Examination of the available browse and the deterioration during the winter.

______. "Game Law Violations." Northern District Bulletin 13 (August 1929):26.

Gates, Paul Wallace, and Robert Swenson. History of Public Land Law Development. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968. [UM].

Standard reference work on public land law in the United States. Includes several chapters on public forest policy. Excellent bibliography.

"George W. Slack Papers." SC 126, MHS.

"George Ahern Scrapbook." SC 1533, MHS.

Gildart, Robert C. (Bert). Montana's Early-Day Rangers. Helena, MT: Montana Magazine, Inc., 1985.

Accounts taken largely from published sources, but some from interviews, of early Forest Service and National Park Service rangers in Montana.

Glacier National Park. "The Glacier View Dam Project." Glacier National Park, 1955. [FCL].

Glacier View Ranger District. "Cumulative Effects Study." 1981. [GVRD].

Detailed discussion of current and proposed activities in and adjacent to the district and cumulative effects of proposed activities, including a section on the history of the area.

Glazebrook, Rita J., ed. Sampler of the Early Years by Forest Service Wives. Washington, DC: Foresters Wives Club of Washington, DC, 1980. [UM].

______. "Glenn Johnston Started Trapping Career Locally." Kalispell News, 12 January 1950:3.

Glover, James M., A Wilderness Original: The Life of Bob Marshall (Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers, 1986).

Biography of Bob Marshall, discussing his work with the Regional Office in Missoula and his efforts to establish wilderness areas.

______. "Government Winning Suit." Forest Service Bulletin (15 October 1920):4.

Graetz, Rick. Montana's Bob Marshall Country. Helena, MT: Rick Graetz, 1985.

Graham, Clara. Fur and Gold in the Kootenays. Vancouver, BC: Wrigley Printing Co., 1945. [UM].

Well-illustrated account of the early history of Kootenay Country in Canada, northeast of the Flathead Valley. Useful information on fur trading and on transportation routes through the Flathead and on early gold strikes in Canada that affected the Flathead.

Granger, Christopher M. "The National Forests at War." American Forests 49 (March 1943):112-115, 138.

Graves, Henry S. "Recreational Uses of the National Forests." American Forestry 23 (March 1917): 133-138.

Gray, Gary Craven. Radio for the Fireline: A History of Electronic Communication in the Forest Service. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, 1982. [RO].

Detailed account of the development of portable radios for Forest Service use. Discussion of Region 1's disapproval of portable radios and its implementation of a communications network.

Great Northern Railway. "The Fertile Flathead Valley, Montana." Ca. 1909. [FCL].

______. Great Northern Railway Country. St. Paul, MN: 1895. [UM].

Green, Charles. Montana Memories. 4 vols. Kalispell, MT: Thomas Printing, 1969-1976.

Reminiscences of Green, who came to Coram in 1914. Memories of old-timers, forest fires, the CCC, Forest Service workers, etc.

Gregg, Frank E. "The Story of Slim Link, Early Day Trapper." 1991. [TLRD].

Gutfeld, Arnon. Montana's Agony: Years of War and Hysteria, 1917-1921. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1979.

Excellent discussion of the attacks on free speech in Montana during World War I. Gives background for the accusations against forest homesteaders who did not evidence sufficient pro-war sentiment during this era. Also discusses the IWW lumber strikes in Montana.

Guth, A. Richard and Stan Cohen. Northern Region: A Pictorial History of the U. S. Forest Service, 1891-1945. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1991.

______. "Gyppo Work." Northern Region News (1930):7.

______. "Half Moon Fire Case." Northern Region News 4 (1 March 1932): 12.

Hamilton, James McClellan. From Wilderness to Statehood: A History of Montana, 1805-1900. Portland, OR: Binfords & Mort, 1957.

Early history of Montana. Some good general information on early railroad route explorations that brought people to the Flathead.

Hammatt, R. F. "Blue Gold." Northern Region News 5 (22 May 1933):6-7.

Hamor, Frank. "Historical Interview with Frank Hamor." September 2, 1975 and July 1, 1976, with Cynthia Mish. [GNP].

Hannon, Champ. 21 January 1970, interview with John Coleman, MHS.

Hardy, Charles E. The Gisborne Era in Forest Fire Research: Legacy of a Pioneer. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, 1983. [UM].

Detailed information on the fire research of Harry Gisborn, who influenced much of the forest fire fighting techniques of the Forest Service from the 1920s-1940s.

Harmon, Frank J. "What Should Foresters Wear?" Forest History 24 (October 1980): 188-200.

Details the many changes in the official Forest Service uniform from 1905-1980.

Harrington, Leona. "History of Apgar." West Glacier, MT: ca. 1957. [FCL].

Collection of letters written in the 1950s by early settlers of Lake McDonald area describing their experiences.

Hash, Howard. "Montana's Fur Trade: Living History." n.d. [FCL].

Haskell, Daniel C., ed. "Our Reconnaissance for the Great Northern." New York: New York Public Library, 1948. [FCL].

Account by GNRR engineer Charles Haskell of his expedition west of Demersville locating the Great Northern route to Libby. In the form of letters to his wife, 1889-91.

Hays, Samuel P. Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920. Cambridge, MA: 1959.

Classic history of the conservation movement during the Progressive Era of the early 1900s, with a chapter on scientific forestry.

Headley, Roy. "Recent Mechanical and Other Innovations in National Forest Fire Control." Journal of Forestry 30 (February 1932): 178-86.

Description of a variety of technological changes that affected methods of detecting and suppressing forest fires.

Helburn, Nicholas. "Geography of the Lumber Industry in Northwestern Montana." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1950.

Helseth, Carter. Interview with Gary McLean, 30 March 1981. [FNF CR].

Hermann, Binger. "The United States Forest Ranger System." The Forester 5 (September 1899): 195-199.

Describes the duties of the various forest reserve officials and lists the number of rangers assigned to each reserve.

Hidy, Ralph W., et al. The Great Northern Railway: A History. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1988.

Business history of the Great Northern Railway. Some information on the search for a route across the Rockies and on the promotional efforts of the railroad.

______. "A Historical Look at Wilderness in the Northern Region." Region one, USDA Forest Service, typewritten, ca. 1982.

Chronology of the designation of the various wilderness areas in the Northern Region.

Historical Research Associates. "Timber, Tribes and Trust - A History of BIA Forest Management on the Flathead Indian Reservation, 18S5-1975." Dixon, MT: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, 1977. [SKCC].

Holterman, Jack. Place Nannes of Glacier/Waterton National Parks. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, 1985.

Includes some locations outside of the Parks. Detailed versions of various sources of names.

Hornby, L. G. "Lookout Visibility Record." Northern Region News 3 (10 January 1931):5.

Hornby, L. G. "Ranger J. E. Thompson Retires." Northern Region News 4 (14 May 1932):6-7.

Howard, Winston, to Don Hauth. Spotted Bear RD, September 14 and November 14, 1984. [FNF CR].

Hudson, Lorelea et al. "A Historic Overview for the Colville and Idaho Panhandle National Forests and the BLM Spokane and Coeur d'Alene Districts." USDA FS: Northern Region, Report #6, ca. 1981. [FNF CR].

Huffman, James L. "A History of Forest Policy in the United States." Environmental Law: the Lewis & Clark Law school 8 (winter 1977):239-80.

Excellent summary of the laws relevant to the management of timbered public lands.

Huggins, John. "Outdoorsman Sketches Memories." Daily Inter Lake, 23 April 1961.

Hutchens, Alice S. The Gift of Little Things. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1968. [FCL].

Reminiscences of a woman who homesteaded in the Star Meadows area.

Hutchens, Jim. Personal communication to Kathy McKay, 21 September 1989.

Hutchison, S. Blair, and P. D. Kemp. "Forest Resources of Montana." Washington, DC: U. S. Forest Service, Forest Resource Report No. 5, 1952.

Ibenthal, W. H. "The Flathead Pulp Chance." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936): 13-14.

Ibenthal, William H. "1952 Timber Management Plan, Kalispell Working Circle." Flathead National Forest, 1952.

Ingalls, Emma. "Over Trails of the Past." Typewritten, ca. 1945. [FCL].

Detailed description of the 1870s-1890s in Flathead Valley. Some information not available elsewhere.

______. "Insect Damage in White Pine." Northern Region News 3 (10 June 1931):6.

Isch, Flora Mae Bellefleur. "The Development of the Upper Flathead and Kootenai Country." M. A. thesis, Montana State University, 1948. [UM].

Excellent history of the Flathead Valley.

Isch, Flora Mae Bellefleur. "The Importance of Railroads in the Development of Northwestern Montana." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 41 (January 1950): 19-29.

Excellent summary of the development of the upper Flathead valley and Libby areas from the 1870s to the early 1900s.

Ise, John. The United States Forest Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1920, reprinted 1972.

Detailed description of opinions in the West both for and against forest reserves and the Forest Service, with explanations and justifications of these views.

Ivorson, Baynard. "History of Wardner." n.d. MSS 9, FSA.

Useful quotes from the B. R. Atkinson history of the Wild Horse diggings.

Jakle, John A. The Tourist: Travel in Twentieth Century North America. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Good overview of tourism, focusing on the automobile tourist. Gives reasons why people would take to the road and discusses the rise and decline in popularity of roadside camping. Very little on use of the national forests.

James, Chuck. "Women in the Forest Service: The Early Years." History Line (winter 1990): 7-11.

Johns, Samuel E. "The Pioneers." 10 vols., compiled 1943. [FCL].

Compilation of newspaper articles, book excerpts, and personal reminiscences of Flathead Valley residents.

Johns, Willis. "Geology and Deposits of Lincoln and Flathead Counties, Montana." Butte, MT: Montana Bureau of Mines Bulletin 79, 1970.

Johnson, Maxine C. "The Effects of the Anaconda Aluminum Company Plant on Flathead County, Montana." Missoula, MT: Montana State University, 1960. [FCL].

Johnson, Olga. Flathead and Kootenai.. Glendale, CA: Arthur Clark & Co., 1969. [FCL].

Johnson, Olga. "Montana's Oldest Ex-Forest Ranger Recalls Interesting Experiences." Great Falls Tribune (25 July 1954): 12-14.

Johnson, Olga Weydemeyer, ed. The Story of the Tobacco Plains Country. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1950. [FCL].

Detailed history, well illustrated, of the Tobacco Plains area. Good information on the fur trade era, on mining, and on local Forest Service rangers.

Johnson, Philip C., and Robert E. Denton. "Outbreaks of the Western Spruce Budworm in the American Northern Rocky Mountain Area from 1922 through 1971." Ogden, UT: Intermountain Station, 1975. [SKCC].

Good summary, with tables and maps, of spruce budworm infestations and efforts at control.

Jones, Benjamin E. and Edward E. Jones. "Power Possibilities of the South Fork, Flathead River." Engineering News-Record 93 (July 17, 1924):96-98.

______. "Kalispell and the Famous Flathead Valley." St. Paul, MN: Mcgill Publishing Co., 1894. [FCL].

Excellent promotional booklet describing the attractions of the Flathead Valley, with details on agriculture and industry and very good photographs.

Kauffman, John M. "Glacier National Park: A History of Its Establishment and Revision of Its Boundaries." Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1954. [GNP].

Quotes from documents relating to petitions to exclude the east side of the North Fork from the park.

Kehoe, James. Interview with Laurie Mercier, 29 August 1982. Montanans at Work Project, MHS.

Kemp, Paul and M. B. Dickerman. "Montana Forest Resource and Industry Statistics." Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1950. [FCL].

Kerlee, Thomas Marvin. "Some Chapters on the Forest Homested Act with Emphasis on Western Montana." M. A. thesis, Montana State University, 1962. [UM].

Excellent description of the problems with the Forest Homestead Acts of 1906 and 1912, using numerous examples from western Montana, including the Flathead and Blackfeet National Forests. Good section on local protest against the establishment of the forest reserves.

Kinney, J. P. The Development of Forest Law in America. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1917. [UM].

A detailed listing of all the federal and state laws concerning the conservation and administration of forest resources in the United States through 1916.

Kirkwood, J. E. Forest Distribution in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Missoula, MT: State University, 1922.

Koch, Elers. "Big Game in Montana from Early Historical Records." Journal Wildlife Management 5 (October 1941):357-370.

Description based on accounts of explorers and fur trappers, plus personal observation, of changes in wildlife populations in Montana.

Koch, Elers. "Forty Years a Forester." Ca. 1940, typewritten. [RO].

Excellent descriptions of his early 1900s inspection trips to the Lewis & Clark Forest forest reserve.

Koch, Elers. "The Good Old Days." Northern Region News 3 (10 January 1931):1-2.

Koch, Elers. "History of the 1910 Forest Fires in Idaho and Western Montana." Ca. 1942, typewritten. [UM].

Typewritten manuscript based on Region One records. Little specific mention of the Flathead National Forest, but good information on the fire organization in the early years and on the after-effects of the 1910 fires.

Kresek, Ray. Fire Lookouts of the Northwest. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press, 1984.

Lang, James. "East Side Flathead History." Typewritten, 1923. [FCL].

Detailed description of the early settlers (1870s-ca. 1885) on east side of the valley.

______. "Large Logging Project Begun." Montana Standard 31 May 1931.

______. "Last Women Lookouts in Forest Service." American Forests and Forest Life 32 (November 1 926):701-702.

Discusses Forest Service policy of no longer hiring women to work as lookouts.

Lewis, H. G. "Report of Intensive Land Classification Blackfeet National Forest (North Fork Project)." Bureau of Soils, 1917. [FNF Lands].

Lewis, William S. and Paul C. Phillips. The Journal of John Work. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark Co, 1923.

John Work was a chief trader for the Hudson's Bay Company, and in the 1820s and 1830s he came near the Flathead area. This account gives a good general history of the fur trade and the various rival companies in the Northwest.

Liebig, Frank. "Diary." 1910. [GNP].

Liebig, Frank F. "Flathead Fire Survey." District One Bulletin 8 (January 1924):8-9.

Liebig, Frank. "Flathead Fungi." The Bulletin 10 (March 1926): 13.

Liebig, Frank. "An Historian." The Bulletin 10 (March 1926):14.

Liebig, Frank. "Recollections of a Veteran." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936): 14-16.

______. "Lightning, Forests." Hungry Horse News, 9 December 1987.

Linderman, Frank B. Montana Adventure: The Recollections of Frank B. Linderman. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1968.

Contains detailed information on some of his experiences trapping in the Flathead Valley area in the 1880s and 1890s.

Linrude, Hoken. Interview with Laurie Mercier. 4 December 1981, Montanans at Work Project, MHS.

Little, John James. "The 1910 Forest Fires in Montana and Idaho: Their Impact on Federal and State Legislation." M. A. thesis, 1968, University of Montana. [UM].

Description of the 1910 fires, based largely on newspaper accounts and government reports. Discusses the effects of the fires on national legislation (the Weeks Law and high appropriations to the Forest Service) and the development of the Northern Montana Forestry Association.

Logan, William R. "Report of the Superintendent of Glacier National Park to the Secretary of the Interior, 1911." Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1911. [GNP].

Summary of the work done in the newly designated Park in 1910 and 1911 seasons, with recommendations for future work.

______. "Loggers Intensify Drive Against Spruce Beetle." Great Falls Tribune 14 June 1953:4.

______. "Lookout Houses by the Bale." Northern Region News II (20 November 30):9.

______. "Lumber Folks." Spokesman Review 31 January 1954:69.

MacKenzie, Donald E. "Logging Equipment Development." Forest History 16 (October 1972):30-33.

Macomber, Beatrice M. Columbia Falls Yesteryears. Columbia Falls, MT, 1976. [FCL].

Good information on the settling of Columbia Falls, written by an early resident.

Magone, Mary Ann. "Jess Underwood Began Chasing Smoke in 1924." Whitefish Pilot 20 August 1970.

Malouf, Carling. "Economy and Land Use by the Indians of Western Montana." Missoula, MT: 1952. [FCL].

Describes various cultural aspects of tribes that have inhabited western Montana.

Mansfield, Don. Interview with Laurie Mercier. 1986. Small Towns Project, MHS.

March, Willis. Interview with Laurie Mercier. 1981. Montanans at Work Project, MHS.

Marshall, Robert. "Contribution to the Natural History of the Lumberjack." District One Bulletin 10 (December 1926):15-16.

Mauritson, W. W. "Early Stockmen Opposed Farmers." Daily Inter Lake 28 February 1954:5D.

McCurdy, Edward B. Frontier Days in the Flathead Country. Polson, MT: Treasure State Publishing Co., 1976. [FCL].

McDonald, J. G. "History of Logging in the Flathead." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936):5-6.

McDonell, J. G. "What the CCC's Have Done." Northern Region News 9 (6 April 1937):36.

McKay, Kathryn L. "Historic and Architectural Properties of Kalispell, Montana." National Register of Historic Places nomination. 1993. [FCL].

______. "Memorial Dedicated on National Forest to Roosevelt the Conservationist." Journal of Forestry 30 (Feb 1932):214-218.

Contains a letter from Pinchot concerning Roosevelt and Pinchot's experiences in the area.

Mendenhall, M. B. "Flathead Fulgencies." Northern District Bulletin 9 (January 1925): 15.

Mendenhall, M. B. "Trail Graders Versus Hand Work." District One Bulletin 10 (October 1926):4.

Mercier, Laurie K. "Montanans at Work: Camp Cooks in Montana." Montana the Magazine of Western History 39 (summer 1989):70-75.

Merriam, Lawrence C., Jr. "The Bob Marshall Wilderness Area of Montana - Some Socio-Economic" Journal of Forestry 62 (November 1964):789-795.

Merriam, Lawrence C. "The Irony of the Bob Marshall Wilderness." Journal of Forest History 33 (April 1989):80-87.

Mitchell, Del. "History of Spotted Bear Area" in "Spotted Bear Country." Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, R1-71-010. 1973.

Monson, O. W. and A.R. Codd. "Snow Surveys and Water Supply Forecasting in Montana." Bozeman, MT: Soil Conservation Service and Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, 1961.

____. "Montana Beautiful and Thrifty: Kalispell, Whitefish and Columbia Falls." The Coast 13 (February 1907):63-71.

Montana Conservation Council. "Natural Resources: A Tour in Western Montana." Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Region One, 1954. [UM].

Booklet describing various parts of western Montana, focusing on land management policies on both public and private lands. Discusses some specific examples in the Flathead Valley.

Montana Fish & Game Commission. "Montana Historic Preservation Plan with Historic Sites Compendium." 3 vols. July 1975. [FNF CR].

Montana State Highway Commission. History of the Montana State Highway Department, 1913-1942, vol. 1. Helena, MT: Montana State Highway Commission, 1943. [UM].

Brief history of the state highway department. Some information on the Forest Highway System in Montana.

______. "Montana's Largest Game Refuge." ca. 1923. RG 95. [NA].

Montgomery, Glenn. Interview with Laurie Mercier. 25 August 1982. Montanas At Work Project, MHS.

Moon, Gareth C. A History of Montana State Forestry. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1991.

Detailed history of the state of Montana's involvement with forestry. Good information on the Flathead Valley area and cooperation with the Forest Service.

Moore, William R. (Bud). Interview with Gary McLean. 12 April 1989. [FNF CR].

Morrison, Ellen Eanhardt. Guardian of the Forest. 1988.

Well-illustrated history of the Smokey Bear campaign of the US Forest Service.

Morrow, Delores. "Our Sawdust Roots: A History of the Forest Products Industry in Montana." N. d. MHS.

Helpful overview of the industry in the state and its changes over the decades.

Muir, John. "The Wild Parks and Forest Reservations of the West." Atlantic Monthly 81 (January 1898):15-28.

Describes several of the national parks and forest reserves, including the Flathead Forest Reserve.

Murphy, James E. Half Interest in a Silver Dollar. Missoula, MT: Mountain Publishing Co., 1983.

Murphy, James E. "Tough Town." Daily Inter Lake March 1993 Centennial.

Myrick, E. H. "Another Pioneer of the Service." Northern Region News 13 (April 1929):2.

Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982.

Neils, George. Interview with Inez Herrig and Sparky Hileman. April 22-May 7, 1976. [FNF CR].

Neils, Paul. Julius Neils and the J. Neils Lumber Company. Seattle, WA: Frank McCaffrey Publishers, 1971. [UM].

_____. "Net Usable Grazing Area." Northern Region News 5 (21 September 1933): 10.

_____. "New Ready-Cut Lookout House." Northern District News (30 June 1930): 10.

_____. "New Ready-Cut Lumber Industry." Flathead Monitor 22 August 1929:2.

_____. "New Store and P. O. for North Forkers," Columbian, 17 June 1920:1.

_____. "New Type Lookout." Northern Region News (1928): 14.

_____. 1918 Presidential Proclamation. 3 June 1918.

_____. "North Fork Railroad Fight." Kalispell Bee 23 April 1909:1.

Ober, Michael. "The CCC Experience in Glacier National Park." Montana the Magazine of Western History 26 (summer 1976):30-39.

Ober, Michael J. "Enmity and Alliance: Park Service - Concessioner Relations in Glacier National Park, 1892-1961." M.A. thesis, University of Montana, 1973. [GNP].

Description of the early hotels and summer cabins on Lake McDonald when the area was still part of the Forest Reserve.

______. "Old-Time Flathead Tales." Missoulian 11 September 1938.

______. "Old-Time Flathead Tales." 1939 newspaper article in Montana - Flathead County - Pioneers, FCL.

Olson, Cherry H. The Depletion Myth: A History of Railroad Use of Timber. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1971. [UM].

Argues that the Forest Service's alarm over timber depletion was unfounded. Using the railroad industry as an example, she shows that large industrial consumers of timber found that emphasis on more efficient use of wood was more profitable than attempts simply to grow more timber.

O'Neil, Carle F. Two Men of Demersville. Carle F. O'Neil, 1990. [FCL].

Detailed history of Demersville's founder and its only mayor.

O'Neil, C. I. "The Butte & Montana Commercial Company of Great Falls," n.d.. File 629, MSU.

O'Neil, Clinton. Timber 'n' Injuns. Kalispell, MT: 1955. [FCL].

A family history that provides excellent details on several early lumber mills in the Flathead Valley, plus some mention of logging activities.

Opalka, Joe. Chronology of Joe Opalka's life. N.d. [FNF CR].

Opalka, Joe. Interview with Ed Hula. 11 April 1983. [FNF CR].

Oppedahl, R. James. "Conflicts Between Resource Development and Preservation at Glacier National Park." M. A. Thesis, University of Montana, 1976. [GNP].

Otis, Alison T., et al. The Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-42. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, 1986. [FCL].

Owens, Dave. Letter to Gary McLean. 4 January 1989. [FNF CR].

Partoll, Albert J. "Fort Connah: A Frontier Trading Post, 1847-1871." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 30 (October 1939):399-415.

Excellent history of Fort Connah in the Mission Valley and its role in the declining fur trade of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Patterson, Ida A. "Montana Memories." N.d. SC 61, UMA.

Paul, Rodman Wilson. Mining Frontiers of the Far West. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Wilson, 1963.

Peffer, E. Louise. The Closing of the Public Domain: Disposal and Reservation Policies, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951.

Discussion of public land laws, with information on grazing and homesteading legislation.

Pepe, Melanie. "The Lavish Estate of Cornelius Kelley." Montana Historian 2 (autumn 1971):24-25.

Short article on the Keiley estate on Swan Lake.

Peters, William S. and J. S. Wright. "Tourist Travel and Expenditures in Montana: A Study of Highway Benefits." Helena, MT: Montana Dept. Highways, 1958.

Survey of Montana tourists in 1958, based on interviews. Some information on National Forest campgrounds and the types of recreation and accommodations people preferred.

Peterson, Marie P. "Homestead Memories." 1977. [FCL].

Discusses homesteading in the North Fork of the Flathead River, with some information on the building of the North Fork Road.

Pinchot, Gifford. Breaking New Ground. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1947.

Autobiography of Gifford Pinchot, first chief of the Forest Service. Discusses the creation of the forest reserves, Pinchot's two trips to the Flathead area, and the management of public forests until 1910.

Pinchot, Gifford. The Use of the National Forests. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, 1907. [RO].

______. "Planting Progress." Northern Region News 10 (6 December 1938):6.

______. Polk City Directories, Flathead County. 1901-1994. [FCL].

______. "Proposed Glacier View Dam." Great Falls Tribune 26 May 1948.

______. "Prospect Tunnel." Whitefish Pilot 15 August 1912.

______. "Protests Against Glacier Park." Inter Lake 27 December 1907.

Pyne, Stephen J. Fire In America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Excellent discussion of fire detection, suppression, and prevention in America. Much of the focus is on the role of the Forest Service, discussing the evolution of the agency's firefighting policies and how they shaped forest management.

Rader, Benjamin G. "The Montana Lumber Strike of 1917." Pacific Historical Review 36 (May 1967): 189-207.

Description of the 1917 IWW strike that began in Eureka, Montana.

____. "Ralph Thayer Recalls N. F. Experiences." Hungry Horse News 18 February 1972.

Randall, Charles E. "Them Were the Good Old Days." American Forests 73 (May 1967):26-29, 61-63.

Recounts some of the early history of the Forest Service and its participants.

Read, John B. "Montana the Treasure State: Its Resources and Attractions for the Homeseeker, Prospector and Investor." St. Louis, MO: Montana World's Fair Commission, 1904. [FCL].

Booklet describing Montana by county. Has good photographs of buildings and farm operations in the Flathead Valley.

______. "Records of Montana Board of Land Commissioners, 1891-1915." RS 29, MHS. "Records of the U. S. Forest Service." RG 95, FRC.

These records are extensive and include much information on the Flathead National Forest. Most useful are the inspection reports, which cover all topics. Also includes files on the CCC camps in the area.

"Records of the U. S. Forest Service." RG 95, NA.

These records include letters written by Flathead National Forest supervisors during the GLO (pre-1905) period, plus invaluable inspection reports from the early Forest Service years. Much other miscellaneous material that relates to the Flathead National Forest.

Redlingshafer, Dale. Interview with Kathy McKay. 18 August 1988. [FNF CR]. Regional Office, USDA Forest Service. History files, Missoula, Montana.

Invaluable source of material on the history of the various national forests in Region One. Also has an excellent collection of historic photographs.

Reiger, John F. American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation. New York: Winchester Press, 1975.

Argues that American sportsmen initiated the conservation movement in the 1870s, that it was not started by Pinchot and his cohorts. Some information on early wildlife and forest conservation efforts on the national level.

Renk, Nancy. Personal communication. 26 August 1994.

______. "Result of Bark-Beetle Infestation." Northern Region News 7 (8 April 1935):5.

Rich, E. E. The History of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1670-1870, vol. II. London: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1959. [UM].

Rinehart, Mary R. Tenting Tonight: A Chronicle of Sport and Adventure in Glacier Park and the Cascade Mountains. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1918. [FCL].

An account of Rinehart's visits to Bowman and Kintla Lakes, traveling with packstring and a boat up the east side North Fork road.

Ringstad, Norman R. and Raymond A. Demarchi. "North Fork of the Flathead: A Canadian View." Western Wildlands 3 (spring 1976):4-9.

Robbin, R. C. 'Chuck.' Flathead Lake, From Glaciers to Cherries. Bigfork, MT: Bigfork Eagle, 1985. [FCL].

A useful general history of the Flathead Lake area. Some specific discussion of the Bear Dance ranger station. Many stories of local early residents of east shore and west shore communities.

Robbins, Roy M. Our Landed Heritage - the Public Domain, 1776-1970. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.

Description of the origins of and reactions to the various federal acts regulating the use and sale of the public domain.

Robbins, William G. Lumberjacks and Legislators: Political Economy of the United States Lumber Industry, 1890-1941. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1982.

Much information on the political and economic forces that influenced lumber industry leaders, with some information on the Forest Service.

______. "Robert P. McLaughlin." District One Bulletin 13 (October 1929): 14.

Roberts, Paul H. Hoof Prints on Forest Ranges: The Early Years of National Forest Range Administration. San Antonio, TX: Naylor Co., 1963.

Covers the history of Forest Service grazing administration into the 1930s. General overview, with emphasis on the Forests with heavy grazing use.

Robinson, Donald H. and M. C. Bowers, eds. Through the Years in Glacier National Park: An Administrative History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1960. [FCL].

Overview of the Park's history, with some treatment of the years before 1910 when it was Forest Service land.

______. "Rock House." Big Fork Eagle 22 August 1984.

Rognlien, D. Gordon. "The Voyage of the Steamer Oakes." Typewritten, ca. 1940. [FCL].

Detailed account based on interviews with two of the participants about the ill-fated 1892 voyage of the Oakes on the North Fork.

Root, John N. "Bridging Snowslide Areas." Northern Region News 9 (21 June 1937):34-35.

Roth, Dennis. "The National Forests and the Campaign for Wilderness Legislation." Journal of Forest History 28 (July 1984):112-125.

Rowe, Jesse Perry. "Montana Coal and Lignite Deposits." Missoula, MT: University of Montana bulletin 37, Geological Series no. 2, 1906. [FCL].

Includes one page on the North Fork of the Flathead coal mine.

Rowley, William D. U. S. Forest Service Grazing and Rangelands: A History. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1985.

The standard history of Forest Service grazing policy. Gives some information on the Flathead National Forest, but most of the emphasis is on the political process and on those Forests with more extensive grazing lands.

Ruder, Mel. "History of Aluminum Plant." Hungry Horse News 1 December 1967.

______. "S. Fork Mountain Man." Hungry Horse News 1 December 1967.

Salmond, John A. The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1967. [UM].

The standard history of the CCC. Focuses on the political forces behind the agency, but also describes daily life for the enrollees.

Sandvig, Robert L. "General Geology and Mines of Northwestern Montana." B. S. thesis, Montana School of Mines, 1947.

Includes maps and description of the Hog Heaven District and the North Fork coal deposits. Saurey, Clarence. Interview with Laurie Mercier. 1983. Montanans at Work Project, MHS.

Schaeffer, Claude E. "LeBlanc and LaGasse, Predecessors of David Thompson in the Columbian Plateau." Browning: Studies in Plains Anthropology and History, No. 3, Museum of the Plains Indian, 1966.

Schafer, Betty, and Mable Engelter. From Stumptown to Ski Town: The Story of Whitefish, Montana. Whitefish, MT: Whitefish Library Assoc., 1973. [FCL].

The standard history of Whitefish. Detailed information taken mostly from newspapers. Good history of the development of Big Mountain.

Schene, Michael G. "The Crown of the Continent: Private Enterprise and Public Interest in the Early Development of Glacier National Park, 1910-17." Forest and Conservation History 34 (April 1990):69-75.

Discusses the role of the Great Northern Railway and the concessionaires in Glacier National Park, with some mention of Forest Service cooperation in fighting fire within the Park.

Schoenberg, Wilfred, S. J. Jesuits in Montana. Portland, OR: Oregon-Jesuit, 1960. [FCL].

An illustrated history, from the Jesuit point of view, of Jesuit missions and missionaries in Montana.

Schutza, Judy L. "The History of Forest Policy In Montana to 1900." M. S. thesis, University of Montana, 1975. [UM].

A general summary of information on lumbering in Montana in the early years. Includes some details on sawmills in the Flathead Valley from the Clarence Strong papers, and has lists of lumber production by year and by mill.

Schwinden, Theodore. "The Northern Pacific Land Grants in Congress." M. A. thesis, Montana State University, 1950. [UM].

This thesis discusses Congressional legislation regarding the land grants given the Northern Pacific Railroad to help in the construction of the line. Some of these odd-numbered section grants were located in what is now the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex.

______. "Senator W. J. Brennen Crosses Great Divide." Kalispell Times 15 March 1928.

Sharp, Bill. "CCC History." Typewritten, 1988. Intaglio Collection, UMA.

Shaw, Charlie. The Flathead Story. Kalispell, MT: Flathead National Forest, 1967. [FCL].

The standard work on the history of the Flathead National Forest, written by a long-time employee. Much good information and anecdotes. Not footnoted.

Shea, Marie Cuffe. Early Flathead and Tobacco Plains: A Narrative History of Northwestern Montana. Eureka, MT, 1977. [FCL].

Sheire, James W. "Glacier National Park: Historic Resource Study." Washington, DC: National Park Service, 1970. [FCL].

Overview of the Park's history, including Native American use of the area and incursions by Euroamerican explorations up to the Park's establishment in 1910.

Shoemaker, Theodore. "Trail's End and Beyond." American Forestry 29 (1923):218-228.

Article describing a 1922 trip into the Mission Mountains (Glacier Creek area) to promote the region, with excellent photographs.

Silcox, F. A. "Appearance of Forest Officers." Northern Region News 7 (7 January 1935):3-4.

Simpson, Charles D., and E. R. Jackman. Blazing Forest Trails. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1967.

Forest Service history and stories by a retired employee. Includes some information on the Blackfeet National Forest.

_____. "Sixty Years Ago." Journal of Forestry 61 (July 1963):532-533.

Reprints a 1903 letter from the acting commissioner of the GLO addressed to forest officers. Contains instructions on detecting fires.

Skeels, Dorr. "Progress Report: Flathead Readjustment Project." Farm Security Administration, 1941. [FCL].

Smith, Allan H. "Kutenai Indian Subsistence and Settlement Patterns, Northwest Montana." Seattle, WA: US Army Corps of Engineers, 1984.

Sneck, Kathleen M. Davis. "The Fire History of Coram Experimental Forest." M. S. thesis, University of Montana, 1977. [UM].

Detailed fire history of the experimental forest, with maps of dated fires. Findings are not applicable to surrounding Forest, however.

______. "Somers Lumber Company Contracts for 35 Feet of Logs." Whitefish Pilot 15 August 1912): 1.

Space, R. S. "Flathead Elk Studies." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936):6-7.

Springer, Vera. Power and the Pacific Northwest: A History of the Bonneville Power Administration. DOI, BPA, 1976.

Spry, Irene Biss. The Palliser Expedition: an Account of John Palliser's British North American Expedition, 1857-1870. Toronto: MacMillan Co., 1964. [UM].

Detailed description of the expedition of John Palliser from 1857-1860, which ventured into the area of the North Fork of the Flathead River.

Steel, Ruth. "Those Glorious Days." Big Fork Eagle 13 May 1981:4-SB.

Steen, Harold K. The U. S. Forest Service - A History. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1976.

The standard, invaluable history of the Forest Service.

Stevens, Isaac I. "Reports of Explorations and Surveys, 1853-55." vol. 12, book 1, Washington, 1860, 36th Cong. 1st Sess. Ex Doc #56, House of Representatives.

Contains a description of Lt. Mullan's trip through the Flathead Valley in 1854.

Stevens, John F. "An Engineer's Recollections: The Discovery of Mamas Pass." Engineering News-Record 114 (July 18, 1935):672-675.

Stevens' own account of his trip to determine the location of the Marias Pass for the Great Northern Railway.

Stevens, Scott, and Calvin Westphal. "Montana History." N.d., class paper. [SLRD].

This student paper gives good information on the Somers Lumber Company timber sale at the head of Swan Lake in the 1910s, plus a map showing the log deck near the outlet of Bond Creek.

Stout, Tom, ed. Montana: Its Story and Biography. 3 vols. Chicago, IL: The American Historical Society, 1921. [FCL].

Stuart, Robert Y. "The Relation of the Forest Service to the Mining Industry." American Forestry 19 (March 1913):154-163.

Suchy, John. "Memories of Early Day Logging." Montana Historian 8 (May 1978):9-13.

Description of logging in the Trego area, with photographs from the 1920s.

Sullivan, Joseph Parker. A Description and Analysis of the Dude Ranching industry in Montana. M. S. thesis, Iowa State University, 1971. [UM].

Short section on the history of dude ranching in Montana. Most of the thesis focuses on current (1971) conditions.

______. "Summary of Forest Reports on Forest Insect Situation." District One Bulletin 10 (January 1926):21-23.

Sundborg, George. "The Economic Base for Power Markets in Flathead County, Montana." Bonneville Power Administration, 1945. [FCL].

Excellent summary of the forest products industry and other economic activity in Flathead County. Most figures are for 1940. Includes discussion of the effects of World War II on the local economy.

Swain, Donald C. Federal Conservation Policy, 1921-1933. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1963.

Argues that the conservation movement matured and made significant progress in the 1920s. Good discussion of various issues such as scientific forestry, wildlife conservation, and the rivalry between the Forest Service and the National Park Service.

Swan, K. D. "Showing Henry Some Country." American Forestry 27 (April 1921):241-247.

Illustrated description of trip made by photographer K.D. Swan and friends in the South Fork in 1920.

Swan, K. D. Splendid Was the Trail. Missoula: Mountain Press, 1968.

Swan River Homemakers Club. Swan River Echoes of the Past, 1893-1993. Swan River Homemakers Club, 1993. [FCL].

Sztaray-Kountz Planning. "Development History of the Canyon Area." 1994. Draft copy for inclusion in a Canyon planning document by David Greer.

Taylor, Pat and Norm Schapacher. Interview with Gary McLean. 17 March 1981. [FNF CR].

Taylor, Pat. Letter to Gary McLean. 14 December 1988. [FNF CR].

Taylor, Pat. Articles prepared for a writing class. 1986. [FNF CR].

Pat Taylor, who worked for the Flathead National Forest beginning in 1930, prepared a series of essays on various aspects of 1930s and 1940s work on the Forest. This material is detailed and accurate - very useful.

______. "Tell of Early-Day River Drives." Hungry Horse News 28 October 1963:12.

Thayer, Ralph. Diaries. [SBRS].

Thayer, Ralph. Interview with Elaine Howard. 31 October 1979. [FNF CR].

Thol, H. J. "Game on the Flathead National Forest." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936):11-13.

Thompson, Larry S. Montana's Early Explorers: The Pioneer Naturalists. Helena, MT: Montana Geographic Series No. 9, 1985.

Includes illustrated accounts of the several explorations of northwest Montana in the 1800s.

Throop, Elizabeth Gail. "Utterly Visionary and Chimerical: A Federal Response to the Depression." M. A., Portland State University, 1979. [FNF CR].

This thesis deals primarily with national forests in Oregon and Washington, but it does provide some information on the CCC program and on rustic architecture that applies to the Flathead National Forest.

______. "Timber Sales Business." District One Bulletin 5 (August 1921):6-7.

Toole, K. Ross. Montana: An Uncommon Land. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959.

General, standard history of Montana, with some information on western Montana that is relevant to logging and fur trade history.

Toole, K. Ross. Twentieth-Century Montana: A State of Extremes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.

Discussion of the World War I era that is helpful in understanding reactions in the Flathead Valley to the lumber strikes and to the hunt for "traitors."

Toole, K. Ross and Edward Butcher. "Timber Depredations on the Montana Public Domain, 1885-1918." Journal of the West 7 (July 1968):351-62.

Townsend, Herb and Elta. Interview with Gary McLean. 3 April 1987. [FNF CR].

______. "Trains Played Key Role." Hungry Horse News 29 July 1987:6.

_____. "Transportation-Fire Control Studies." Northern Region News 3 (10 July 1931): 13.

Trimble, William J. The Mining Advance into the Inland Empire. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1914. [UM].

Good information on the California-east migration of miners in the 1860s. Talks about the Wild Horse mines.

Tweed, William C. Recreation Site Planning and Improvements in National Forests, 1891-1942. Washington, DC: History Section, USDA Forest Service, US Government Printing Office, 1980.

A useful summary of the changes in Forest Service recreation planning and programs over the decades.

Tyler, Robert L. "I. W. W. in the Pacific N. W.: Rebels of the Woods." Oregon Historical Quarterly 55 (March 1954):3-44.

Tyler, Robert L. Rebels of the Woods: The I. W. W. in the Pacific Northwest. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon Books, 1967.

A scholarly history of the IWW, focusing on the free speech movement and lumber strikes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. Some general background information on the industrial union and its philosophy.

USDA Forest Service. "Campground Improvement Guide, Region One." Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, Region One, 1935. [FNF CR].

This guide gives plans for various buildings and structures at campgrounds, plus text describing how to lay out a campground.

USDA Forest Service. "Cumulative Grazing Statistics National Forests of Montana, 1919-1941 and Cumulative Big Game Estimates National Forests of Montana, 1909 to 1941." Missoula, MT: Division of Range and Wildlife Management, 1942. [RO].

Tables showing grazing and big-game estimates on the Flathead and other national forests in the state.

USDA Forest Service. "Early Days in the Forest Service." 4 vols. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, 1944, 1955, 1962, 1976. [FCL].

Letters and reminiscences written by Region 1 Forest Service employees about their years working for the agency. The accounts are rich in detail of daily work, noteworthy events, personalities, etc. Some copies of historic photographs are included.

USDA Forest Service. "Establishment and Modification of National Forest Boundaries. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1985. [RO].

USDA Forest Service. "Flathead National Forest, Montana." USDA Forest Service brochure, ca. 1929. [FCL].

USDA Forest Service. "Forest Trail Handbook." Washington, DC: revised July 1935. [FNF CR].

USDA Forest Service. The History of Engineering in the Forest Service (A Compilation of History and Memoirs, 1905-1989). Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, Engineering Staff, 1990. [RO].

Excellent accounts by Forest Service engineers and employees in related fields about their experiences in the Forest Service and the changing status of engineering.

USDA Forest Service. "National Forest Areas, 1924-61." Compiled by the Branch of Engineering, 1962. [UM].

Year-by-year statistics on the acreage of national forests around the country.

USDA Forest Service. "Northern Region Press Releases, 1936-61." [UM].

Invaluable, as the press releases give specific information on the Flathead National Forest and put events in a regional context. The earlier years have more press releases originating on the regional instead of the national level.

USDA Forest Service. "Possibilities for the Establishment of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Flathead Region of Montana." Missoula, MT: District Forester, US Forest Service, ca. 1920. [UM].

A booklet promoting the possibilities of selling pulpwood on National Forest lands in the North Fork of the Flathead. This sale never materialized, but there is good information on the timber types and logging costs in the area.

USDA Forest Service. "A Study to Determine the Effect of Hungry Horse Project." 1948. [HHRD].

USDA Forest Service. "Watershed Management Conference." USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, 1956. [FNF CR].

______. "Use Horses to Build Trails." District One Bulletin 9 (December 1925): 14-16.

Vaught, L. O. "Vaught Manuscript." Ca. 1943. [GNP].

Typewritten, over 400 pp. Covers the early years of Glacier National Park history up to the 1890s.

Vaught Papers. [GNPA].

Collection of research material gathered by L. O. Vaught, primarily in the 1930s, about the early history of the Glacier National Park area and the Flathead Valley. Includes letters to and from various early settlers of the area. Excellent map collection.

Veach, Wm, Sr. "An Early Trip Into Glacier Park." Typewritten, 1939. [GNP].

Account of 1876 prospecting and trapping trip to Quartz Lake.

Venn, George A. "The Wobblies and Montana's Garden City." Montana the Magazine of Western History 21 (fall 1971): 18-30.

Vose, R. H. "Harry." "Early Events in Flathead Valley & Surrounding Area." Typwritten, 1964. [FCL].

An excellent, detailed account of Ashley, Demersville, and early farming in the Kalispell area in the late 1880s and early 1890s.

______. "W. J. Brennen Pioneer of State Dead." Flathead Monitor 15 March 1928:1.

Walsh, Mrs. T. J. "Picturesque Lake McDonald." Rocky Mountain Magazine 1 (January 1901):325-330.

Walter, Dave. "Answers from the Bon Ami Box." Montana Magazine 72 (July - August 1985):11-15.

Excellent summary of North Fork homesteaders' life ca. 1922, based partly on receipts from the Polebridge Mercantile.

Webber, Bert. Silent Siege - Japanese Attacks Against North America in World War II. Ye Galleon Press, 1984.

Contains a few pages on the Japanese balloon and bomb found by woodworkers 17 miles from Kalispell.

Weisel, George F., ed. Men and Trade on the Northwest Frontier as Shown by the Fort Owen Ledger. Missoula, MT: Montana State University, 1955. [UM].

Ledger of Fort Owen in the Bitterroot, 1850-60, with biographies of the people who had accounts in the ledger.

West, Raymond M. "Stream and Lake Survey and Management Plan, Upper Flathead Drainage." Kalispell, MT: Flathead National Forest, 1938.

Recommends fish and egg stocking of streams and lakes in the area, plus other measures to increase productivity of desirable fish.

West, Terry L. "Centennial Mini-Histories of the Forest Service." Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, 1992.

Short chapters on various aspects of Forest Service history, readable and succinct.

White, Mark J. "Early Lewis & Clark Reserve Personnel." Kootenai National Forest report, ca. 1990. [FNF CR].

White, Mark J. "Portrait of Three Miners." Pp. 3-20 in Libby Montana Institute of the Arts Writers Group, Tapestries of Yesterday. Libby, MT: Denning Printing, 1993. 1993a.

White, M. Catherine. David Thompson's Journals Relating to Montana and Adjacent Regions, 1808-1812. Missoula, MT: Montana State University Press, 1950. [FCL].

David Thompson's edited journals with an excellent introduction describing the early fur trade in Montana.

White, Thain. "Partial List of Military Posts, Forts, Fur Posts, Trading Posts, Houses & a Few Other Names..." 1964. [FCL].

Compilation of references in historic documents to the location and dates of operation of trading posts, etc. in the 1800s in Montanan. Quotes from these sources.

Whitney, Art. Interview with Gary McLean. 5 October 1983. [FNF CR].

Wiener, Alfred A. The Forest Service Timber Appraisal System: A Historical Perspective, 1891-1981. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1982. [UM].

A detailed history of the Forest Service timber appraisal system. Some specific information on Montana timber sales. The Somers Lumber Company sales are discussed briefly.

Wiles, T. M. "What Will Become of Our Homesteads?" District One Bulletin 8 (December 1924):5.

Wiles, T. M. "Ridge Trails - Low Standard." District One Bulletin 13 (March 1929):5-6.

Wiles, T. M. "Our Recreational Industry." Northern Region News 8 (6 May 1936):16-17.

Wilke, Bert. Interview with Anne Hoffman. 12 August and 2 September 1983. [RO].

Transcript of interviews with Bert Wilke, resident of Eureka area for many years, Kootenai National Forest employee (primarily packer), and stepson of early ranger Fred Herrig. Poor transcript, but some good information on logging camps in the 1910s.

Willey, Dan Allen. "Watching for and Preventing Forest Fires." Scientific American (January 13, 1912):48, 56-58.

Early description, with photos, of fire detection methods in the Forest Service.

______. "William R. Kreutzer, First U. S. Forest Ranger." Journal of Forestry 45 (October 1947): 765-766.

Williams, G. A. "Livestock History, Flathead County." Federal Writers Project, 1940. MF250, reel 20, MHS.

Willis, Bailey. "Oil of the Northern Rocky Mountains." Engineering and Mining Journal (December 14, 1901):782-784.

Description of Willis' investigations of the oil reports in the North Fork area.

Willis, Bailey. "Glacier National Park: Early Exploration." Typewritten, 1938. [GNP].

Account of Willis' surveying trip along the international boundary in 1901.

Wilson, Larry. "Frank Liebig Writes of Early Days." Hungry Horse News 22 October 1986.

Wilson, Larry. "Matt was Favorite Storyteller." Hungry Horse News 13 January 1988.

Wilson, Mary. "The Rocky Mountain Cabin." Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, 1984. [FNF CR].

A description and analysis of a type of log cabin common in the northern Rockies that has a frontward extension of the gabled roof, an off-centered door in the front wall, and an iron stove in the interior.

______. "Winston and Liebig Retire." Flathead Monitor 5 December 1935:1.

Winters, Robert K., ed. Fifty Years of Forestry in the U. S. A. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters, 1950. [UM].

Summary of forestry in America up to 1950. Good sections on the various laws and acts affecting Forest Service land management.

______. "With 'Toad' Packing." Kalispell News 18 August 1982:20.

Wolfe, K. "The Flathead Blowdown." District One Bulletin 8 (September 1924): 12-13.

Wolff, Ken. "History of the Swan Valley." Montana Magazine (July-August 1980):50, 52-55.

History of the Swan Valley. Good anecdotes, but the information is not always correct.

Wolle, Muriel Sibell. Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Miing Camps of the Treasure State. Chicago, IL: Swallow Press, Inc., 1963.

Section on the Flathead Mine and the Hog Heaven District.

Woolley, H. E. "What Has Been Accomplished in Fire Protection on the National Forests." American Forestry 19 (November 1913):760-768.

Description of the successes of new fire detection and suppression methods.

Worf, William A. Letter to Gary McLean. 1 January 1989. [FNF CR].

Wright, William Fred. "A Study of Land Management and Recreational Users of the Mission Mountains Primitive Area, Montana, 1964." M. S. Thesis, University of Montana, 1966. [UM].

Gives good historical information on Euroamerican use of the Mission Mountains, and some on the Swan Valley. Helps clarify land ownership in the valley.

Wyss, Marilyn. "Roads To Romance: The Origins and Development Of The Road and Trail System In Montana." Helena, MT: Montana Department of Transportation, 1992.

Overview of the development of the road and highway system in Montana.

Yenne, W. J. Switchback. Kalispell, MT: WY Books, 1983.

An account of the author's experiences as a packer working on Glacier View Ranger District in the 1920s and 1930s and in other areas such as Glacier National Park.

Young, James A. and Jerry D. Budy. "Adaptation of Tracklaying Tractors for Forest Road and Trail Construction." Journal of Forest History 31 (July 1987): 122-132.

Detailed description of the development of the bulldozer.

<<< Previous <<< Contents>>>

Last Updated: 18-Jan-2010
Forest History Society Electronic edition courtesy of the
Forest History Society.