Guide to Images from "The Dawn of Private Forestry in America, Recollections of a Forester Covering the Years 1895 to 1914," a Manuscript by Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), 1954?


Collection Information



Abstract:
Carl Alwin Schenck (1868 - 1955) was a German-born forester who greatly impacted the development of the fledgling forestry profession in the United States during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. While employed as the forester in charge of managing the woodlands on George W. Vanderbilt's estate in Asheville, North Carolina, Schenck implemented scientific forestry practices and founded the first forestry school in the United States, the Biltmore Forest School. Late in his life Dr. Schenck recorded his memoirs in a manuscript he titled "The Dawn of Private Forestry in America, Recollections of a Forester Covering the Years 1895 to 1914." He used numerous black-and-white photographic images dating from the 1890s to the 1910s to supplement the manuscript, and those images form the basis of this collection. Significant topics documented by the images include: Schenck's impressions of the years when he, Gifford Pinchot, and Bernhard Eduard Fernow were the only trained foresters working in the United States; life and work on the Biltmore Estate; the founding, development, and closing of the Biltmore Forest School; and the various professional and community contacts Schenck made while working for George W. Vanderbilt. Schenck's illustrated memoir offers a unique glimpse into the views, thoughts, and actions of one of the first practicing foresters in the United States.
Contact Information:
Forest History Society
Library and Archives
701 William Vickers Avenue
Durham, North Carolina
27701-3162 USA
Phone: (919) 682-9319
Fax: (919) 682-2349
Email: coakes@duke.edu
URL: http://www.foresthistory.org
Processed by
Michele A. Justice
Date Completed
April, 2002
Encoded by
Michele A. Justice

Descriptive Summary

Creator
Schenck, Carl Alwin, 1868 - 1955.
Title
Images from "The Dawn of Private Forestry in America, Recollections of a Forester Covering the Years 1895 to 1914," a Manuscript by Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), 1954?
Extent
1 bound manuscript, 1 file folder
.3 linear feet
Location
For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Forest History Society Archivist/Librarian Cheryl Oakes.

Information for Users

Restrictions to Access
This collection is open for research.
Provenance
Unknown
Preferred Citation
[Identification of Item], Images from "The Dawn of Private Forestry in America, Recollections of a Forester Covering the Years 1895 to 1914," a Manuscript by Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), Library and Archives, Forest History Society, Durham, North Carolina.
Copyright Notice
The Forest History Society owns copyright to this collection. Individuals obtaining materials from the Forest History Society Library and Archives are responsible for using the works in conformance with United States copyright law as well as any donor restrictions accompanying the materials.
Processing Information
Thumbnail images displayed in this guide were scanned at 75 dpi with a maximum pixel size limitation of 300 pixels imposed. Digital surrogate images were scanned at 150 dpi with a maximum pixel size limitation of 700 pixels imposed. Supplemental descriptive data about images appearing in this guide and with the digital surrogates was drawn from the Forest History Society's Image Database, which contains catalog records for images in the Society's collections. Information presented in [square brackets] indicates that the cataloger supplied the data.

Biographical Note

Carl Alwin Schenck was born 25 March 1868 in Darmstadt in the state of Hesse, Germany. As a young man he studied forestry and law, earning a Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Giessen in 1895. On the recommendation of Sir Dietrich Brandis, then considered the world's leading professional forester, American entrepreneur George W. Vanderbilt hired Schenck in 1895 to manage the woodlands on his vast estate in Asheville, North Carolina. Schenck succeeded Gifford Pinchot, the first American trained in the field of forestry, as manager of the estate's forests, taking charge of such forest management tasks as implementing erosion control measures, supervising logging practices, marketing timber, and reforesting harvested lands.

In 1898, with George Vanderbilt's permission, Schenck founded the Biltmore Forest School, the first forestry school in the United States. The school primarily admitted high school graduates with lumbering experience and trained them to work as foresters in the private sector rather than as government employees in positions that required extensive education. The school offered a one-year course of intensive lectures supplemented with extensive field work in practical forestry and lumbering. Schenck ran the school in his spare time, conducting most of the lectures and personally leading the students on lengthy horseback rides through the Biltmore forests so that they could view firsthand the various forestry applications being implemented on the estate. The school flourished for a number of years, but in 1907 George Vanderbilt fired Schenck over a disagreement, and Schenck was forced to move the Biltmore Forest School off the grounds of the Biltmore Estate. For a time Schenck used as his headquarters a schoolroom and student housing provided by Champion Paper and Fibre Company in the town of Sunburst, North Carolina, and he began taking his students on extensive field trips to Germany, France, New York, North Carolina, Michigan, and Oregon. Schenck eventually disbanded the Biltmore Forest School in 1913 due to declining enrollment after having graduated over three hundred fifty students.

In 1914 Schenck was recalled to Germany to serve as a lieutenant on the Eastern front, where he was wounded in action. In the decade following World War I, Schenck gave forestry lectures at several German and American forestry schools, and he conducted field tours of European forests for American forestry students. During the 1920s and 1930s he wrote numerous articles and textbooks while continuing his work as a lecturer. In the wake of World War II, Schenck worked with American authorities to help set up forestry and relief programs in Germany. In his later years he received numerous honors, including an honorary degree of Doctor of Forest Science from North Carolina State College awarded in 1952. In that same year, Schenck returned to the United States and spoke at numerous banquets, meetings, and dedications around the country. On 16 May 1955 Carl Alwin Schenck died at the age of eighty-seven in Lindenfels, Germany, after having been ill for quite some time.

Scope and Content Note

Late in his life Dr. Schenck recorded his memoirs in a manuscript he titled "The Dawn of Private Forestry in America, Recollections of a Forester Covering the Years 1895 to 1914." In the manuscript, he describes his impressions of the years when he, Gifford Pinchot, and Bernhard Eduard Fernow were the only trained foresters working in the United States. He reminisces about such topics as life and work on the Biltmore Estate; the founding, development, and eventual disbandment of the Biltmore Forest School; the various professional and community contacts he made while working for George W. Vanderbilt; and the American way of life and the American people. Schenck included numerous photographs in his manuscript to illustrate the details of his reminiscences. The images and the captions Schenck provided for them greatly enhance the manuscript, offering visual representations of the life and work of one of the first practicing foresters in the United States.

In 1955 the Minnesota Historical Society published a revised edition of Schenck's manuscript on behalf of the American Forest History Foundation [Forest History Society] under the title The Biltmore Story: Recollections of the Beginning of Forestry in the United States. The Forest History Society, in cooperation with the Appalachian Consortium, reprinted the 1955 book in 1974 under a new title, The Birth of Forestry in America: Biltmore Forest School, 1898-1913. In 1998 the Forest History Society, in cooperation with the Cradle of Forestry in America Interpretive Association and the U.S. Forest Service History Program, reprinted Schenck's memoirs again under the title Cradle of Forestry in America: The Biltmore Forest School, 1898-1913. The original unpublished manuscript, the photos used to supplement it, and published versions of Carl Schenck's memoirs reside in the collections of the Library and Archives of the Forest History Society in Durham, North Carolina.

Organization of Collection

The sole series of this collection, Images Supplementing the Schenck Manuscript, contains 186 black-and-white photographic images that provide visual context for Carl Schenck's written memoirs. The "Detailed Description of Collection" section of this guide includes digital representations of images from the original unpublished manuscript. Each image includes a link to a [Digital Surrogate] that displays a larger version of the digital image and supplemental descriptive information.

Also available for browsing is a complete Photo Gallery that includes digital representations of all images used in the Schenck manuscript. The gallery consists of index pages displaying thumbnail images with links to pages containing larger digital images and descriptive data.

Online Catalog Headings

Biltmore Estate (Asheville, N.C.)
Biltmore Forest School -- History.
Foresters -- United States -- Biography.
Forestry schools and education -- North Carolina.
Forests and forestry -- United States -- History.
Schenck, Carl Alwin, 1868 - 1955.
Vanderbilt, George Washington, 1862 - 1914.

Detailed Description of Collection

Series I: Images Supplementing the Schenck Manuscript, ca. 1890s - 1910s

Scope and Content Note

Thumbnail digital representations of photographs from Carl Schenck's autobiographical manuscript are presented below along with brief caption information. The [Digital Surrogate] links to a larger digital image with more complete cataloging information.

- Image ID: FHS292th    Image Date: [1889]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In the center with a slouch hat is Sir Dietrich Brandis (1824-1907), framed by Professors Dr. Hess and Dr. Wimmenauer, on a visit at the Giessen school forests and school forest gardens in 1889, with a group of English students destined for forestry in India.


- Image ID: FHS293th    Image Date: [1892]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Dr. William Schlich, in the middle of the lowest row, at the time dean of the forestry school at Oxford, with students of the school on a visit in the forests of Saxony in the year 1892. To his right and left, Saxon foresters. In the front row, Indian foresters on European leave. At the extreme right, [Carl Alwin Schenck] in the uniform of a German "forst accessist."


- Image ID: FHS294th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), landscape architect of the Biltmore Estate, did more than anyone else in the closing decades of the [nineteenth] century for the aesthetic development of the United States. He is the creator of New York's Central Park; of the park systems of Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago, Louisville, and Milwaukee; and it was Olmsted who designed the grounds surrounding the National Capitol in Washington, D.C.


- Image ID: FHS295th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Biltmore Forest comprised 5,500 out of the total of 7,500 acres immediately surrounding Biltmore House [on the Biltmore Estate of George W. Vanderbilt in Asheville, North Carolina]. Pisgah Forest, Mr. Vanderbilt's more remote property, comprised 120,000 acres on the headwaters of the French Broad River. [A large tree farm was planned for this forest, but the plan was abandoned after twelve years in 1909.]


- Image ID: FHS296th    Image Date: [1893]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The virgin forests on Big Creek in Pisgah Forest had been unmolested by ground fires and by the axe until the huge tulip tree here seen on the ground was felled in 1893. Some 500 tulip trees of similar size were at hand in the cove, while the majority of the stand was composed of chestnuts, oaks, basswoods, black gums, birches, sourwoods, etc.


- Image ID: FHS297th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Another view of the virgin forests on Big Creek [in North Carolina's Pisgah Forest]. In the foreground, two chestnuts; in the center, a good-sized tulip tree; and at the right (with a man at its foot), a large-sized tulip tree.


- Image ID: FHS298th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A view overlooking the Pinkbeds of Pisgah Forest and the Balsam Mountains [in North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS299th    Image Date: [1889]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: George Washington Vanderbilt (1862-1914) was the owner of the finest mansion in the U.S.A., of the Biltmore Estate, of Biltmore Forest, and of Pisgah Forest, all situated near Asheville in western North Carolina.


- Image ID: FHS300th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: George Washington Vanderbilt's (1862-1914) great mansion in the center of his Biltmore Estate [near Asheville, North Carolina], designed by architect Richard Morris Hunt after the pattern of the French Chateau de Blois on the Loire River. It was constructed of Indiana limestone at an expense of $5,000,000.


- Image ID: FHS301th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The reception room of "Biltmore House", with walls covered by tapestries made in the sixteenth century by Italian weavers. [George Vanderbilt (1862-1914) constructed this mansion on his estate near Asheville, North Carolina, from 1889 to 1995.]


- Image ID: FHS302th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The dining room of "Biltmore House", as large as a church -- so large, indeed, that the diners are lost in it unless there are one hundred of them.


- Image ID: FHS303th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927) was the author in 1880 of the monumental Tenth Census Report on the American Forests. From 1887 to 1897 he edited the monthly [magazine] Garden and Forests, and from 1891 to 1902 [he edited] the stupendous Silva of North America. His fame in American forestry was such in 1896 that he was the logical chairman for [President Grover] Cleveland's Forest Commission of the National Academy of Sciences. No doubt but that C. S. Sargent is the very progenitor of American forestry.


- Image ID: FHS304th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The splash dam 22 feet high, built of cribs made of hemlock logs, on Big Creek in Pisgah Forest, at the end of its utility in 1896. When full of water, its gate used to be closed by heavy, perpendicular, squared piles. [The dam was located on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS305th    Image Date: 5/10/1911

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A McGiffert log loader in action near New Bern, North Carolina. The logging machine is here shown with its running wheels raised and standing on its stilts. Through the tunnel thus formed within the machine, empty railroad cars are drawn by a cable and placed in such a position that they may be loaded from the raised arm of the machine with the logs pulled by it toward the track of the railroad. With the wheels on the rail, the McGiffert acts as a locomotive. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, studied logging operations such as this around the state to develop ideas for managing the estate's forests.]


- Image ID: FHS306th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval woods at their best in the heart of Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina]. Most of the trees are tulip trees. The presence of some hemlocks and of a dense undergrowth testifies to the long-continued absence of surface fires.


- Image ID: FHS307th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Three yoke of steers were required for sliding ("snaking") this huge log to the bank of Big Creek in Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's estate in Asheville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS308th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Logs of tulip trees lying in Big Creek of Pisgah Forest in a wild array and waiting for a "splash" of water to drive or float them toward the sawmill on the French Broad River near Asheville, North Carolina. [Big Creek valley was part of George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, the forests of which were initially managed by Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) and later by German forester Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955).]


- Image ID: FHS309th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Another splash dam is being constructed on the North Fork [of Big Creek in Pisgah Forest on the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina], this time on a smaller scale and with the help of forestry prentices.


- Image ID: FHS310th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Overton Westfeld Price (1873-1914) was in 1895 and 1896 a most efficient prentice and helpmate of the author [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955)]. Later he became assistant forester of the U.S. Forest Service under the direction of chief Gifford Pinchot.


- Image ID: FHS311th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A fuelwood log chute made from sections of chestnut lumber in Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina]. The sections, each twelve to sixteen feet long, may be carried from one incline to another. The fuelwood placed in the chute is expected to slide down automatically if the gradient is better than twenty percent.


- Image ID: FHS312th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: By way of an improvement cutting, all misshapen and all fire-damaged trees have been made into fuelwood for the Asheville [North Carolina] market. The wood is stacked along a rough wagon road. The sprouts emitted by the stumps of the hardwood trees are expected to form an understory (the coppice story) under the sound "standards" of pine and oak, which were left by the axe.


- Image ID: FHS313th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical forest road sixteen feet wide in the Biltmore Forest [on the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina] runs through a young stand of pines raised entirely from self-sewn seeds. All hardwood trees smothering the young pines have been made into fuelwood for the Asheville market.


- Image ID: FHS314th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Ranger Kelley stands in the midst of some seedlings of tulip trees which have sprung up luxuriously after reckless logging on Big Creek of Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's estate near Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS315th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A cabin on an abandoned squatting in Pisgah Forest on which a dense stand of saplings, all tulip trees, has sprung up automatically. [Two men, one holding a shotgun, are visible standing near the cabin's stone chimney. The Pisgah Forest, later known as the Pisgah National Forest, was part of George Vanderbilt's estate near Asheville, North Carolina, during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.]


- Image ID: FHS316th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The Big Creek in Pisgah Forest was running between banks clothed in rhododendron (great laurels) prior to the logging operations [on the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina] and, notably, prior to the "splashes" forcing the logs assembled in the creek toward the river.


- Image ID: FHS317th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: After the logging operations on Big Creek [in North Carolina's Pisgah Forest], and notably after "splashing", the beauty of the woods and the water regime of the creek was destroyed forever.


- Image ID: FHS318th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: An abandoned field on the Biltmore Estate [of George Vanderbilt in Asheville, North Carolina], eroding badly, is made secure prior to being planted with pines by a series of rough wicker fences.


- Image ID: FHS319th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mrs. Carl Alwin Schenck inspects a plantation [on the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina,] three years old. [Her husband was a German forester employed by George Vanderbilt on the estate, and he was founder of the Biltmore Forest School in 1898.]


- Image ID: FHS320th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mrs. Carl Alwin Schenck stands at a lumber camp in a blazing sun between two high-wheeled logging carts.


- Image ID: FHS321th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: George Vanderbilt's "Buckspring Lodge" in a saddle close to the top of Mt. Pisgah [on the Biltmore Estate near Waynesville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS322th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical forestry road sixteen feet wide constructed after careful surveys in a rough country.


- Image ID: FHS323th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Some American beeches stunted by storms on a high ridge near the Buck Springs in Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's estate near Asheville, North Carolina]. In the coves of Pisgah Forest, the beeches are rare.


- Image ID: FHS324th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mrs. Carl Alwin Schenck, wife of the author, at her little deer park on the Biltmore Estate [in Asheville, North Carolina]. The stag is named "Monarch".


- Image ID: FHS325th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A stand of jack pine in northern Minnesota, some sixty years old. General C. C. Andrews, professor Samuel B. Green, and the author [Carl Alwin Schenck] are seated in the buggy traversing this woodlot. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester for George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, toured various regions of the United States in the 1890s, 1900s, and 1910s in an effort to gain insight into the different conditions and composition of forests throughout the country. This image was taken on one such visit to Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS326th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Jack pine coming up luxuriantly and spontaneously in Minnesota after the death of a stand of pine by severe forest fires. Here, too, death is swallowed up in victory! [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester for George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, toured various regions of the United States in the 1890s, 1900s, and 1910s in an effort to gain insight into the different conditions and composition of forests throughout the country. This image was taken on one such visit to Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS327th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Unlike their modest squaws, these Indian braves do not mind getting photographed by the white intruders. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester for George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, toured various regions of the United States in the 1890s, 1900s, and 1910s in an effort to gain insight into the different conditions and composition of forests throughout the country. This image was taken on one such visit to Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS328th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: On the graves of the Chippewa in the Leech Lake Indian Reservation of Minnesota, doghutches serve as tombstones and delicacies offered to the spirits of the dead serve as flowers. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester for George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, toured various regions of the United States in the 1890s, 1900s, and 1910s in an effort to gain insight into the different conditions and composition of forests throughout the country. This image was taken on one such visit to Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS329th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In the Chippewa Indian Reservation of Minnesota, a forest of red pine was destroyed by fire and thereupon logged by Caucasians who did not live on the reservation. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), chief forester for George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, toured various regions of the United States in the 1890s, 1900s, and 1910s in an effort to gain insight into the different conditions and composition of forests throughout the country. This image was taken on one such visit to Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS330th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A moonshiner in Pisgah Forest [part of George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS331th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Students of the Biltmore Forest School scaling the logs of a yard on Poplar Hill in the Pinkbeds of Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS332th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Lookingglass Rock Mountain in the heart of Pisgah Forest [on the estate of George Vanderbilt near Asheville, North Carolina], its top framed in sheer cliffs.


- Image ID: FHS333th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Lookingglass Creek, a clear mountain stream [in Pisgah Forest on the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina] with plenty of brook trout in it and with glorious tulip trees in its coves.


- Image ID: FHS334th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The falls of Lookingglass Creek in Pisgah Forest [on the Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS335th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The valley just north of Lookingglass Rock called "All Saints Preserve" was famous for its wonderful stand of tulip trees. [The valley was part of the Pisgah Forest on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS336th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The sort of scientific forestry in which these students of the Biltmore Forest School are being instructed, seems to be a laughingstock. [Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955) founded the Biltmore Forest School on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, in 1898.]


- Image ID: FHS337th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The [Biltmore Forest School] students, astride their horses in front of the first school house of forestry in the United States and ready to accompany the author [Carl Alwin Schenck] on his daily trip of inspection in Pisgah Forest. [Pisgah Forest was part of George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina. Schenck was chief forester for the estate and taught the forestry school students, as well.]


- Image ID: FHS338th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mrs. Edith Stuyvesant Dresser Vanderbilt (1873-1958) became mistress of Biltmore House in 1898. She was the wife of George Washington Vanderbilt (1862-1914), owner of the Biltmore Estate in the mountains of western North Carolina.


- Image ID: FHS339th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Biltmore Forest School students at work in the forest nurseries of the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina.


- Image ID: FHS340th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Fuelwood piled in an improvement cutting within the Biltmore Forest [on George Vanderbilt's estate in the mountains of western North Carolina.] The branches on the ground are left to rot. There is no danger, here, of forest fires.


- Image ID: FHS341th    Image Date: [1898]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A primeval stand of longleaf pine near Jasper, Alabama, showing the old-fashioned method of "boxing" to yield turpentine and resin. The "box" is a receptacle skillfully hacked into the base of the tree beneath the white "face" from which drops of resin trickle down.


- Image ID: FHS342th    Image Date: [1890s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Another primeval stand of longleaf pine waiting for exploitation. The white cards on the ground floor indicate seedlings which have sprung up automatically in an open spot after surface fires. The bases of the mother trees have been blackened by these fires without being damaged by them because the fireproof bark on them was left intact.


- Image ID: FHS343th    Image Date: [1899]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The logger in the forests of longleaf pine suspends the logs beneath the axle of his high-wheeled cart. So far, only one tree in this stand -- the front tree in the picture -- has been skinned and tapped to yield its resin. But all the other trees will follow suit before they are cut and logged. [Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck toured regions of the United States to study existing management techniques employed in the forest and naval stores industries in order to gain insight into how best to manage forests on George Vanderbilt's extensive property in the mountains of western North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS344th    Image Date: [1899]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: After the total destruction of the old stand, seedlings of longleaf pine spring up automatically and abundantly provided that the old stand is removed in a seed year or soon after a seed year of the mothers. [Carl Schenck witnessed such scenes of natural forest regeneration while on a trip through Alabama and Florida in the summer of 1899.]


- Image ID: FHS345th    Image Date: [1899]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [An example of natural forest regeneration witnessed by Carl Schenck during a trip he took through Alabama and Florida in the summer of 1899. Here, seedlings of longleaf pine six years old resemble palms.]


- Image ID: FHS346th    Image Date: [ca. 1899]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Here is a particularly fine stand of cypress rivaling in its grandeur the redwoods of California. [Carl Schenck expressed awe at viewing such cypress trees on a trip to Florida ca. 1899.]


- Image ID: FHS347th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Elbert Hubbard, Harry White, and Carl Alwin Schenck, as members of a congressional party investigating the chances for a Minnesota National Park, are seen engaged in the study of the growth of jack pine in the Red Lake Indian Reservation. [The Great Northern Railroad invited a delegation of U.S. congressmen and leading journalists to tour the lands of this Chippewa Indian Reservation in hopes of convincing Congress to abolish the reservation and convert the lands into public forests that would offer recreational opportunities for sportsmen, thus generating business for the railroad, which traversed parts of the reservation.]


- Image ID: FHS348th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: An island in Cass Lake within the Chippewa Indian Reservation [in Minnesota] presents to the visiting congressmen a fine stand of primeval red pine with an understory of white pine seedlings -- not of red pine seedlings! A small lake found on the island is solemnly baptized by the visitors. [The Great Northern Railroad invited a delegation of congressmen and leading journalists to tour the lands of the Chippewa Indian Reservation in hopes of convincing Congress to abolish the reservation and convert the lands into public forests that would offer recreational opportunities for sportsmen, thus generating business for the railroad, which traversed parts of the reservation.]


- Image ID: FHS349th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [The Great Northern Railroad invited a delegation of congressmen and leading journalists to tour the lands of the Chippewa Indian Reservation in Minnesota in hopes of convincing Congress to abolish the reservation and convert the lands into public forests that would offer recreational opportunities for sportsmen, thus generating business for the railroad, which traversed parts of the reservation. In this image,] the visiting congressmen are about to embark on a trip over Red Lake in the Red Lake Indian Reservation.


- Image ID: FHS350th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A rollway of pine logs obtained from a burned tract in the Red Lake Indian Reservation [in Minnesota. In late 1899 or early 1900, Carl Schenck toured the reservation with a congressional delegation.]


- Image ID: FHS351th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A train loaded with pine logs en route to Red Lake [in Minnesota. In late 1899 or early 1900, Carl Schenck toured the Red Lake Indian Reservation with a congressional delegation.]


- Image ID: FHS352th    Image Date: [1899 or 1900]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The pine logs, dumped into Red Lake [in Minnesota], are conveyed in a boom across the Lake to the Red Lake River. Floating down that river, the logs will arrive in due course at a sawmill in Grand Forks, North Dakota. [Sometime in the winter of 1899-1900 Carl Schenck toured the Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota with a congressional delegation at the request of the Great Northern Railroad.]


- Image ID: FHS353th    Image Date: [1901]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A primeval stand of hardwoods in the Adirondacks along a highway. [In 1901, Bernhard Eduard Fernow (1851-1923) asked Carl Schenck to evaluate his forest management plan for a section of forest in the Adirondack Mountains of New York that he managed as a demonstration forest for classes he taught at the New York State College of Forestry (Cornell School of Forestry).]


- Image ID: FHS354th    Image Date: [1901]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mixed stand of hardwoods (maple, birch) and conifers (spruce and white fir) in the Adirondacks. [In 1901, Bernhard Eduard Fernow (1851-1923) asked Carl Schenck to evaluate his forest management plan for a section of forest in the Adirondack Mountains of New York that he managed as a demonstration forest for classes he taught at the New York State College of Forestry (Cornell School of Forestry).]


- Image ID: FHS355th    Image Date: [1901]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Selection forest of beech on the Ballard Estate in Louisville, Kentucky. [In 1901 the Commercial Club of Louisville, Kentucky, invited forester Carl Schenck to give a talk promoting forest conservation and the need to establish a state forestry association. Schenck's speech focused on the economics of forestry, and he noted during his visit that forest management in Kentucky at that time remained an activity practiced only on large estates, such as the Ballard Estate pictured here.]


- Image ID: FHS356th    Image Date: [1901]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A Vanderbilt party scales the bluffs of Lookingglass Rock in Pisgah Forest [on the Biltmore Estate in North Carolina] with the help of rustic ladders. On top, George W. Vanderbilt; next to him, his friend and physician, Dr. S. W. Battle; next, Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt in her riding suit; lowest, Miss Marion Olmsted, daughter of the famous landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr.


- Image ID: FHS357th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A sample of the rustic houses built of hewn timber in Pisgah Forest for the benefit of rangers and workers [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate near Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS358th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The lumber yard at Pisgah Forest Station contains prime yellow poplar (tulip tree) lumber, further red oak and white oak and notably chestnut lumber, all sawed by the portable sawmills of the Forest Department of the Biltmore Estate [owned by George Vanderbilt and located in Asheville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS359th    Image Date: [1902]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The log deck of a portable sawmill in Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate in western North Carolina]. Head ranger Cyrus T. Rankin stands by some red oak logs too big for the circular saw in the sawmill unless they are quartered with dynamite before they are rolled onto the sawmill carriage. Above the logs appears the roof of the sawmill consisting of all shingles.


- Image ID: FHS360th    Image Date: [1902]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Here, the portable sawmill is seen from within. The man standing at the left is lumber inspector Eaton. There happens to be no log on the sawmill carriage so that a silvery pin -- which actually is the circular saw of the sawmill -- appears in front of the two boys in the rear of the picture. At the extreme right on a swinging arm, there is the trimmer saw by which the boards are cut to proper lengths as they drop from the sawmill carriage. The "setter" standing on the carriage is about to move its "knees" to the left and to shoot his carriage toward the log deck in the rear. [The Forest Department of the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, used portable sawmills to cut lumber in the forests on the estate prior to sending them to the lumber yard in Pisgah Forest Station.]


- Image ID: FHS361th    Image Date: [ca. 1902]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Some students of the Biltmore Forest School are inspecting and piling lumber cut at a portable sawmill before it is sent to the lumber yard at Pisgah Forest Station [near Asheville, North Carolina].


- Image ID: FHS362th    Image Date: [1905]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Sir E. G. Joly de la Lotbiniere, owner of an old established French-Canadian "Seigniory" in the woods of Quebec, became interested in forestry around the turn of the century. [In February 1905 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended several forestry meetings in Montreal, Canada. There he met Mr. E. G. Joly de la Lotbiniere, who invited Schenck to tour his family's forested estate near the city of Quebec.]


- Image ID: FHS363th    Image Date: [1905]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This stack of spruce pulpwood has been cut in the woods of Lotbiniere [near Quebec, Canada] and waits for the creek to thaw out and float it to the pulpmill. The hardwoods in the rear, all worthless at the time, are sugar maple, birch, ash, and beech while the softwoods are spruce and white fir. No trace anywhere of forest fires. [In February 1905 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended several forestry meetings in Montreal, Canada. There he met Mr. E. G. Joly de la Lotbiniere, who invited Schenck to tour his family's forested estate near the city of Quebec.]


- Image ID: FHS364th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: From this tract, the towering white pines have been cut and their logs have been removed in sleds over the snow roads. The remaining hardwood trees and the white firs (steeple-shaped tops) have no value; nor has that one solitary tall white pine any value which appears in the extreme right of the stand. It is riddled with fungus disease and rotten to the core. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS365th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval stands of white pine on the John Booth limits in Northern Ontario on the Ottawa River. The steeple-shaped tops are those of white fir forming and understory. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS366th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval stands of white pine on the John Booth limits in Northern Ontario on the Ottawa River. The steeple-shaped tops are those of white fir forming and understory. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS367th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval stands of white pine on the John Booth limits in Northern Ontario on the Ottawa River. The steeple-shaped tops are those of white fir forming and understory. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS368th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval stands of white pine on the John Booth limits in Northern Ontario on the Ottawa River. The steeple-shaped tops are those of white fir forming and understory. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS369th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Dinner is getting ready in John Booth's logging camps on the Ottawa River for an illustrious party of visitors headed by His Grace Earl Grey, Governor General of the Dominion of Canada. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS370th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A carload of white pine logs holding in front of a good stand of white pine about to be cut. The small seedlings in the undergrowth are those of white fir, not those of white pine which would refuse to grow in the shade of their mother trees. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS371th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A trainload of white pine logs ready to pull out. The few white pine trees seen in the rear are so doty (decayed) that it does not pay to bring them to a sawmill. The poles and saplings of white fir left on the ground are worthless. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS372th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: From the woods here shown, all white pine trees have been removed. A few logs remain in the snow at the left of the horse-sled. The crew in the rear throws dirt into the sled tracks thus preventing the sleds from making too fast a run. The hardwood trees left standing are worthless. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (here shown) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS373th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: From the woods here shown, all white pine trees have been removed. A few logs remain in the snow at the left of the horse-sled. The crew in the rear throws dirt into the sled tracks thus preventing the sleds from making too fast a run. The hardwood trees left standing are worthless. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (here seen) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS374th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical logging sled with its load of white pine logs on the John Booth limits in Northern Ontario [Canada. In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS375th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In the center, a burned stand of white pine; all around it, a second growth of white pine automatically grown after one or more forest fires. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS376th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Natural regeneration of white pine after heavy forest fires. Some logging camps in the foreground. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS377th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A close-up view of a young stand of white pine and birch which has sprung up after severe fires killing the mother trees some ten years ago. [In February 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck attended a Canadian Forestry Congress in Ottawa. While on that trip, he toured the forested estate (seen here) of John Booth in northern Ontario adjacent to the Ottawa River.]


- Image ID: FHS378th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Professor Franklin Sherman, Jr., (b. 1877) state entomologist of North Carolina and a favorite teacher at the Biltmore Forest School [on George Vanderbilt's estate in western North Carolina] for several years [during the school's operation from 1898 to 1913].


- Image ID: FHS379th    Image Date: [ca. 1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Professors and students at the Biltmore Forest School on an excursion in the woods of the Champion Fibre Company near Waynesville, North Carolina. In the center standing (white shirt), Dr. St. George Sioussat (economics), and next, toward the right, Dr. H. D. House (dendrology), Edgar D. Broadhurst (law), and Dr. Schenck; next a Chinese student Young Hee Tong by name, a German forester Richard Kern by name, Billy Mershon, and Roy Thomas; at the extreme left, Howard R. Krinbill, assistant to the director. In the rear, virgin hardwood forest with an undergrowth of red-blooming rhododendrons.


- Image ID: FHS380th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Professor H. O. Allison, University of Missouri, and Professor Collier Cobb, University of North Carolina, tenting with the Biltmore foresters in the wild woods while instructing them in their special branches of science. [Although Carl Schenck founded and directed the Biltmore Forest School, his lessons were supplemented by lectures given by a number of guests knowledgeable in specific subject areas. The school operated on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate from 1898 to 1913.]


- Image ID: FHS381th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A colored [sic] family living at Camp Perry, holdings of the John L. Roper Company, is off for a joy-ride.


- Image ID: FHS382th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Some American warships peacefully at anchor in the harbor of Norfolk, Virginia. [Carl Schenck, manager of the Biltmore Estate forests, sent lumber from the estate to Norfolk for export to Europe.]


- Image ID: FHS383th    Image Date: [1907]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A log chute in the Karpathians [sic] (now Hungary) built by Italian lumberjacks for the removal of huge stands of primeval spruce. In the picture, the left prong of the chute has been dissolved and the logs composing it have been shot down to the river in the valley, some two miles below. [In 1907 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck visited his mother in Germany and toured lumbering operations in Austria and Hungary.]


- Image ID: FHS384th    Image Date: [1907]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A splash dam in the Karpathians [sic]. The water accumulating behind it is being released from time to time so that the logs lying in the bed of the creek farther down may be driven towards the large floatable river. [In 1907 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck went to Europe to visit his mother in Germany and then to tour lumbering operations in the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe.]


- Image ID: FHS385th    Image Date: [1907]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [In 1907 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck toured lumber operations in the Carpathian Mountains of eastern Europe. Here,] spruce logs floating down the river are caught in a boom spanning the entire river.


- Image ID: FHS386th    Image Date: [1907]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [In 1907 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck examined lumbering operations in eastern Europe. Here, near a boom that catches logs floated down a river in the Carpathian Mountains, is pictured] the largest sawmill of Europe, employing 20 single-log gang saws, all belt-driven from one and the same shaft.


- Image ID: FHS387th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This is Bradley Creek, a tributary of the North fork of Mills River in Pisgah Forest, North Carolina, a streamlet clear and sparkling -- and at the time of Earl Grey's visit in the year 1908 -- rich in brook trout while the banks of the creek were rather poorly timbered.


- Image ID: FHS388th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A narrow-gauge railroad in Pisgah Forest [North Carolina], its wooden rail top-stripped with hickory, is used for conveying logs singly on a slight downhill grade to the portable sawmill. The empty car is brought back by a steer. [In 1908 during the Forest Fair at the Biltmore Estate, Carl Schenck took attendees on tours of the estate's forest plantations and lumbering operations, such as this one, to help promote forestry and celebrate the ten-year anniversary of the founding of the Biltmore Forest School.]


- Image ID: FHS389th    Image Date: [1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In a compartment of the Biltmore Forest, a scrubby stand of hardwoods has been cut for fuelwood going to Asheville, and a promising young stand of yellow pines, now some eight feet high, is allowed to shoot ahead. In the rear are seen some remnants of yellow pines left from stands removed about twenty years ago, long before the advent of forestry in these woodlands. As in the insect world, the death of the mothers gives life and birth to the children. Death is nothing but a phase of eternal life. [In 1908 Biltmore Estate forester Carl Schenck took attendees of the Biltmore Forest Fair on tours of the estate's forested holdings and lumbering operations to promote scientific forestry in the United States and to celebrate the ten-year anniversary of the founding of the Biltmore Forest School on George Vanderbilt's estate in Asheville, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS390th    Image Date: [ca. 1908]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Dr. Homer D. House (d. 1949) seated at his tent in the woods. He was a capital dendrologist, a true friend of the students and a most loyal stand-by of the Biltmore Forest School in its critical days and in its long peregrinations. In later years, as state botanist of New York, he has published some excellent monographs on the flora of that state. [Dr. House succeeded Dr. C. D. Howe as assistant chief of the Biltmore Forest School. The assistance of Drs. Howe and House allowed Carl Schenck to spend time away from the school examining forestry operations in Europe and North America.]


- Image ID: FHS391th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Biltmore Estate scene showing tanbark] being peeled from chestnut oak trees, for conveyance to a tannery. The bark is set up for drying first against the tree lying prostrate, next in piles along rough roads fit for sledding. The logs cut from the trees are brought to the nearest portable sawmill over the same rough roads.


- Image ID: FHS392th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Biltmore Estate scene showing tanbark] being peeled from chestnut oak trees, for conveyance to a tannery. The bark is set up for drying first against the tree lying prostrate, next in piles along rough roads fit for sledding. The logs cut from the trees are brought to the nearest portable sawmill over the same rough roads.


- Image ID: FHS393th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Biltmore Estate scene showing tanbark] being peeled from chestnut oak trees, for conveyance to a tannery. The bark is set up for drying first against the tree lying prostrate, next in piles along rough roads fit for sledding. The logs cut from the trees are brought to the nearest portable sawmill over the same rough roads.


- Image ID: FHS394th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Biltmore Estate scene showing tanbark] being peeled from chestnut oak trees, for conveyance to a tannery. The bark is set up for drying first against the tree lying prostrate, next in piles along rough roads fit for sledding. The logs cut from the trees are brought to the nearest portable sawmill over the same rough roads.


- Image ID: FHS395th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A four-wheeled wagon is used in Pisgah Forest [on George Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate] when heavy logs are conveyed to the sawmill over long distances.


- Image ID: FHS396th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Students of forestry cannot do any better than discuss with the lumberjacks some serious problems of logging.


- Image ID: FHS397th    Image Date: [ca. 1910]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This house in Darmstadt, once upon a time the residence of the Merck family now of New York City, was used in the years 1909 to 1913 as the school house of the Biltmore Forest School [when students were on extended field trips in Germany.]


- Image ID: FHS398th    Image Date: [1909]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: His Royal Highness Grand Duke Ernest Ludwig of Hessen [Germany], hereditary governor of the State of Hessen, with his daughter Princess Elisabeth, in the year 1909. [Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on field trips to Europe and other areas of North America whenever possible. Often the students would spend several months observing forest management practices in such places as Schenck's home state of Hessen, Germany. Grand Duke Ludwig supported intellectual studies so much that he offered rooms in his castle for use by the school while the students were in Darmstadt in 1909.]


- Image ID: FHS399th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Artist's rendering designed to highlight the slogan appearing beneath the globe: The Fate of the Whole World Hangs on the Trees. This is a message Carl Schenck consistently imparts in his manuscript.]


- Image ID: FHS400th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A planted experimental stand of Douglas-fir in the Heidelberg City forests remarkable for its slender side branches. The size of the trees at the time 35 years old is indicated by white crosses one yard long. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices.]


- Image ID: FHS401th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The Biltmore Forest School [students] in the Black Forest of Germany. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices.]


- Image ID: FHS402th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical valley in the heart of the Black Forest traversed by the Murg River which has been used and abused for log driving for centuries. The small vales in the picture are haylands dotted with stacks of hay. These lanes were and they still are capital fire lanes and also capital safeguards against wide-spreading windfalls. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types.]


- Image ID: FHS403th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical stand of spruce in the Black Forest [in Germany] made accessible by permanent roads. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types.]


- Image ID: FHS404th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: At the edge of a windfall caused by a hurricane, the natural regeneration of the spruce woods is handicapped. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types. This scene is one such studied by the students in Germany.]


- Image ID: FHS406th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: When the axe proceeds from the northeast towards the southwest, which means to say (in the Black Forest) against the direction of the storms, the progress of natural regeneration from self-sewn seeds is fairly secure and windfalls among the mother trees are reduced. The conversion of the old stand into a new stand requires some thirty to forty years. [Since most hurricanes that hit the Black Forest in Germany moved in from the southwest, German forester Christof Wagner (1869-1936) developed this systematic logging technique based on the geometric organization of the woods. The "Wagner System" was applied in various regions of Germany during this era. From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types.]


- Image ID: FHS407th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types. Here, the American forestry students visit the grave of German forester Heinrich von Cotta (1763-1844), founder of scientific practical forestry in Europe, on the grounds of the Tharandt School Forest in Germany.]


- Image ID: FHS408th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe to study European silvicultural practices for various forest types. Here,] American and Swiss students of forestry [are] with their teachers on an excursion near Zurich, Switzerland, [on one such trip]. In the foreground of the picture, professors Knuchel, Schadelin, Schenck, Badoux, Burger, Gaumann, Flury, and some local foresters.


- Image ID: FHS409th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe. They spent much time in Germany studying silvicultural practices for various forest types. Here is pictured] a sample plot of Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) planted in 1872 on the lands of Count Berckheim near Heidelberg. At the time of the picture taking, the trees were 52 years old. The white cross on the trees is one yard long.


- Image ID: FHS410th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe to study silvicultural practices for various forest types. On one such visit, the students visited the southwestern region of France known as Gascony to observe French turpentining practices. Here is seen] a French "raisinier" at work scraping the resin off a "face" on a maritime pine in the Landes of Gascogne.


- Image ID: FHS411th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This stand of maritime pine has been tapped for about 30 years and it is going to be tapped for another 40 years. Notice that the trees are being thinned out continuously and that they are standing far apart. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe to study silvicultural practices for various forest types. On one such visit, the students visited the southwestern region of France known as Gascony to observe French turpentining practices.]


- Image ID: FHS412th    Image Date: [ca. 1909-1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical polewood of maritime pine in the Landes of Gascogne freshly pruned and about to be tapped for its resin and turpentine. [From 1909 to 1913, Biltmore Forest School founder Carl Schenck took his students on annual trips to Europe to study silvicultural practices for various forest types. On one such visit, the students visited the southwestern region of France known as Gascony to observe French turpentining practices.]


- Image ID: FHS413th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The sawmill of the Norwood Manufacturing Company at Tupper Lake in the Adirondacks. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe the logging and driving operations of such companies as the Santa Clara Lumber Company, Norwood Manufacturing Company, and the Brooklyn Cooperage Company.]


- Image ID: FHS414th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The forest nurseries of New York State, at the time in charge of state forester Clifford Robert Pettis (b. 1877). [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe the logging and driving operations of such companies as the Santa Clara Lumber Company, Norwood Manufacturing Company, and the Brooklyn Cooperage Company.]


- Image ID: FHS415th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A stand of primeval shortleaf pine near Norfolk, Virginia. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS416th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. Here is a scene viewed on one such trip through Norfolk, Virginia, showing an immature stand of shortleaf pine.]


- Image ID: FHS417th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited this standard-gauge logging railroad that ran straight through the pineries near Norfolk, Virginia.]


- Image ID: FHS418th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited the holdings of the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina. Here,] a mule team attached to a slip-tongue logging cart is seen in the act of lifting some pine logs toward its axle.


- Image ID: FHS419th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited the holdings of the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina. Here,] a mule team attached to a slip-tongue logging cart is seen in the act of lifting some pine logs toward its axle.


- Image ID: FHS420th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: On swampy soil where mule teams cannot be used, a Clyde skidder pulls the pine logs scattered in the woods by its wire cable to the track of the railroad. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited the holdings of the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina. This is one scene from that trip.]


- Image ID: FHS421th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The McGiffert log loader is "spotting" some empty cars through its tunnel thus making them ready to be loaded with logs dangling from its own long arm. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited the holdings of the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina. This is one scene from that trip.]


- Image ID: FHS422th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: At other pints along the railroad [used by the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina], logs are loaded on cars by a travelling derrick. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. On one such trip, the students visited the holdings of the John L. Roper Lumber Company in New Bern, North Carolina. This is one scene from that trip.]


- Image ID: FHS423th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Logging near Norfolk, Virginia, in full swing. The tall trees left are fungus-ridden, "punky" or red-hearted and worthless. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. This is a scene viewed on one such trip through Virginia.]


- Image ID: FHS424th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Looks of eastern pineries when all is over. In the center of the picture, there used to be the track of the logging railroad, the rail and ties of which have been moved to another logging site. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. This is a scene from one such trip.]


- Image ID: FHS425th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A cypress swamp near Camp Perry [in New Bern, North Carolina. Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School took annual visits in the spring to the Adirondack Mountains in New York to view Dr. Bernard [sic] Eduard Fernow's forest nurseries and to observe logging and driving operations of various companies in the region. On the way back to North Carolina, the students would often visit lumbering and forest management operations in other states and in other areas of North Carolina. This is a scene from one such trip through New Bern, North Carolina.]


- Image ID: FHS426th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The village of Sunburst on the lands of the Champion Fibre Company offers for several years its hospitality and its schoolhouse to the Biltmore Forest School banished from Biltmore. [In 1909 George Vanderbilt asked for Carl Schenck's resignation as manager of the Biltmore Estate forests in Asheville, North Carolina. Around that time Schenck received an inheritance from an uncle that freed him from the need of Vanderbilt's salary. Schenck continued to run the Biltmore Forest School away from the Biltmore Estate, taking his students on extended field trips to Europe and through different regions of the United States. In 1910 Reuben B. Robertson, owner of Champion Fibre Company in Canton, North Carolina, and friend of Carl Schenck, offered the Biltmore Forest School the use of lodgings and a modern schoolhouse in the company's town of Sunburst in Haywood County, North Carolina. Schenck gladly accepted.]


- Image ID: FHS427th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A bridge in the village of Sunburst across the Pigeon River. The stream has the earmarks of former log drives shaving its banks. [In 1909 George Vanderbilt asked for Carl Schenck's resignation as manager of the Biltmore Estate forests in Asheville, North Carolina. Around that time Schenck received an inheritance from an uncle that freed him from the need of Vanderbilt's salary. Schenck continued to run the Biltmore Forest School away from the Biltmore Estate, taking his students on extended field trips to Europe and through different regions of the United States. In 1910 Reuben B. Robertson, owner of Champion Fibre Company in Canton, North Carolina, and friend of Carl Schenck, offered the Biltmore Forest School the use of lodgings and a modern schoolhouse in the company's town of Sunburst in Haywood County, North Carolina. Schenck gladly accepted.]


- Image ID: FHS428th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Professor Sioussat (teaching economics at the school) is seated on the decaying corpses of some giant spruces in the primeval woods at Sunburst, camp of the Biltmore Forest School. In the rear [are visible], maples, birches, spruces, and Fraser firs. [St. George Leakin Sioussat (b. 1878) was employed by the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee, and gave lectures in political economy to the students of the Biltmore Forest School.]


- Image ID: FHS430th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval woods at Sunburst [North Carolina]. In front, a pile of spruce logs; at the right, assistant Richard Kern at the foot of a red oak; in the rear, a typical stand of spruce, all age classes mixed. [After a 1909 dispute led to the firing of Carl Schenck as chief forester for the Biltmore Estate, Schenck ran the Biltmore Forest School out of a base camp in Sunburst, North Carolina -- a company town owned by Reuben Robertson, head of Champion Fibre Company and a good friend of Carl Schenck.]


- Image ID: FHS431th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval spruce woods at Sunburst in western North Carolina, Haywood County. [Carl Schenck moved the Biltmore Forest School to a base camp in Sunburst after George Vanderbilt fired him as chief forester of the in 1909.]


- Image ID: FHS432th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Primeval spruce woods at Sunburst in western North Carolina, Haywood County. [Carl Schenck moved the Biltmore Forest School to a base camp in Sunburst after George Vanderbilt fired him as chief forester of the in 1909.]


- Image ID: FHS433th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Rain or shine, ice or snow, the Lidgerwood skidder never fails to bring the logs to the standard gauge railroad in a country as wild as any in the American East. [Carl Schenck's Biltmore Forest School students viewed numerous operations such as this one while based in Sunburst, North Carolina, on lands owned by the Champion Fibre Company.]


- Image ID: FHS434th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Mr. Sam Mapes, our camp cook in the woods of Cummer-Diggins near Cadillac, Michigan, summons his guests to dinner with the help of his far-reaching horn. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS435th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Bunkhouse of the Biltmore Forest School in the virgin woods [owned by the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company, in Cadillac, Michigan. Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS436th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The office of the Biltmore Forest School in the wild woods near Cadillac, Michigan, consists of a box car placed on a siding. The office is surrounded by maples, elms, birches and beeches, all of which will be removed within the next few weeks. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS437th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Some capital logs of American elm and logging superintendent Davidson in the woods near Cadillac, Michigan, property of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company of that city. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS438th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Tracks of the narrow-gauge logging railroad in the woods of Cummer-Diggins [Lumber Company] near Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS439th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A beauty spot in the primeval woods near Cadillac, Michigan. The tree in the center is a sugar maple, the big tree at the right is an American elm. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS440th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The forestry students have scaled a rollway of logs accumulated along the track (not visible in the picture) of a narrow-gauge railroad. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS441th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A trainload of logs (maple, beech, birch, elm, and hemlock) on its way to the sawmill of Cummer-Diggins [Lumber Company in] Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS442th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Dr. Hermann von Schrenk [b. 1873; gentleman wearing hat], expert in timber impregnation, and Dr. C. A. Schenck with their ladies at a tent in the woods near Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS443th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A huge rollway of hardwood logs waiting to be conveyed by rail to the sawmills of Cummer-Diggins [Lumber Company] at Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS444th    Image Date: [ca. 1890s - 1910s]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Students of the Biltmore Forest School on a cruise (making an inventory of the trees on a section of woodlands) for the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company near Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS445th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The stunt of [timber] cruising is interrupted by the stunt of lunching in the wild woods [owned by the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company in Cadillac, Michigan]. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS446th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In the center, Ernest Thompson Seton (1860-1946), famous author of animal stories; to his right, Royal S. Kellogg (b. 1874), formerly chief of the Newsprint Service Bureau in New York City; to the left, Mrs. Carl A. Schenck; standing behind from left to right: Dr. Hermann von Schrenk (b. 1873), Dr. Carl Alwin Schenck (1868-1955), Mrs. and Mr. Kern, assistant of the Biltmore Forest School in 1910. In the rear, the virgin woods on the shores of Lake Day-Hugg near Cadillac, Michigan. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS447th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on a trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit. This picture shows the impact of a sudden storm, which Carl Schenck called a hurricane, on part of the school's camp area. Here,] a big sugar maple [has fallen] on Mrs. Schenck's tent, squashing everything that was in it.


- Image ID: FHS448th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The logs in the woods at Cadillac are conveyed to the railroad track during summer by high-wheel carts ["big wheels"] pulled by two horses. [The logs] are loaded on railroad cars by a McGiffert log loader. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS449th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A high-wheel logging cart with logs suspended beneath its axle has arrived at the loading station on the railroad. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS450th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The McGiffert log loader, after unloading the supply car standing at its left, is now moving some empty logging cars through its own tunnel from the right to the left, so that they will stand, one after the other, on the spot now occupied by the supply car where they will be loaded, one after the other, with the logs seen in the rear, from the loading arm of the machine. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS451th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The high-wheeler is back in the woods, ready to take another load of logs. Notice a maple log lying between the wheels of the cart and about to be lifted and chained to the axle of the cart. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Cadillac, Michigan, to view the operations of the Cummer-Diggins Lumber Company. The company provided lodging, food, and a school room for Schenck and his students during their visit.]


- Image ID: FHS452th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This is the type of the special train in which the Biltmore Forest School crosses the continent. Whenever it is desired by the school, the cars of the foresters are detached from the regular train and are sidetracked to a logging railroad for an inspection of the operations of its western lumber friends. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909.]


- Image ID: FHS453th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A boom filled with floating logs in the harbor of Duluth, ready to be towed by a steamboat to a sawmill. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on such trip through Minnesota.]


- Image ID: FHS454th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The Biltmore foresters arrive in Portland, Oregon, [and are] welcomed at the station by their friends, among them George M. Cornwall, editor of The Timberman; George Cecil, chief of District 6 in the [U.S.] Forest Service; assistant forester [J. B.] Knapp; state forester Elliot; Henry Turrish; Lamont Rowlands; F. H. Ransom; and Victor Thrane representing James D. Lacey & Co. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Portland, Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS455th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: On the holdings of the Chapman Timber Company, the [Biltmore Forest School] students and their leader get the first glimpse of a logging scene in the realm of the Douglas-fir. James McNaughton, the logging superintendent (white shirt), explains the situation. Notice that the logs, 42 feet long, are suspended between two small cars. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Portland, Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS456th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The visiting [Biltmore Forest School] foresters watch a donkey engine as it pulls the logs to the railroad. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Portland, Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS457th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The logging railroad delivers the logs to a boom in the river in which they are towed to the sawmill of the Chapman Timber Company. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Portland, Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS458th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This is Arno Mareen, vice president of the C. A. Smith Lumber Company at Marshfield, Oregon, unrivalled in his days as a builder of gigantic sawmills. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS459th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The C. A. Smith [Lumber Company's] sawmill at Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon, has a daily output of almost 1,000,000 feet b.m. of lumber. It is the largest sawmill in the U.S.A. There is but one difficulty: it is impossible to get rid of the offal of slabs, edgings, trimmings, and sawdust in its gigantic burning tower! [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS460th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: This is A. H. Powers who is confronted by the task to supply the C. A. Smith [Lumber Company's] mills, day by day, with 1,000,000 feet b.m. of logs -- and he did it! [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS461th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Two lumberjacks in the woods of the C. A. Smith Lumber Company at Marshfield, Oregon, pose to be photographed while laying low a giant Douglas-fir. The understory of trees in the rear consists of cedars and hemlocks. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS462th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: In the Oregon woods, it is often cheaper to put a railroad on stilts (piles and trestles) than to excavate a roadbed for its track. Notice in the picture the giant size of some logs in the center. The machines in the picture are pile drivers and donkeys. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS463th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A trestle bridge on the logging railroad is about ready for use. In the excavations of the roadbed, we find lots of charcoal, a sure evidence that the present generation of gigantic trees stands on the cinders of its mother trees. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS464th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A close-up view of logging in the forests of Douglas-fir with an old-fashioned but reliable donkey engine. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS465th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A trainload of logs is about to arrive at its destination, the C. A. Smith sawmills in the harbor of Coos Bay [Oregon]. The slope in the rear of the picture, depleted many years ago, is covered by a promising second growth automatically produced. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS466th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The logging train has been unloaded. The logs were dumped into the river and they are now towed, held together in a boom which looks like a triangular flat boat, to the sawmills of the C. A. Smith Lumber Company in Marshfield, Oregon. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS467th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Accompanied by Augustus Adlesperger of the C. A. Smith Lumber Company, the Biltmore foresters cruise a section of primeval Douglas-fir at Coos Bay, Oregon. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS468th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The lumber as it comes from the sawmills of C. A. Smith [Lumber Company] is being loaded at once on steamers specially constructed for the purpose [of conveying] the lumber over a distance of 440 miles to the C. A. Smith lumber yard on the Golden Bay [San Francisco, California]. The three masts of the steamer "Nan Smith" may be distinguished in our picture behind a black derrick to the right of the lumber piles waiting to be loaded. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS469th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: At some logging operations near Coos Bay, Oregon, ten men (including the logging boss) are standing and seven men are sitting on one single stump of a big Sitka spruce. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS470th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The best stand of primeval Douglas-fir owned by the C. A. Smith Lumber Company lies on Eden Ridge in the backwoods of Coos Bay [Oregon]. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS471th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A typical pole stand of Douglas-fir in the Coos Bay region of Oregon. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS472th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: A very big but also very rough Douglas-fir felled on the holdings of McDonald and Vaughan at Coos Bay, Oregon. The [Biltmore] forestry students (on the four top logs) are scaling the lumber contained in the giant. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS473th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The boss of the woods and the boss of the Biltmore Forest School [Carl Alwin Schenck, left] are leaning against the big end of the giant [Douglas-fir] tree. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to Marshfield (Coos Bay), Oregon.]


- Image ID: FHS474th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Logging camps of the Polsen Lumber Company of Hoquiam, Washington, in the valley of the Wynoochee River south of the Olympic Mountains. The valley is said to contain the finest timber in the state of Washington. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to the state of Washington.]


- Image ID: FHS475th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Logs of the Polsen Lumber Company on their way to the sawmill. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to the state of Washington.]


- Image ID: FHS476th    Image Date: [ca. 1910 - 1913]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: The Forestry Building in Seattle, a relic of a great exposition held in that metropolis, had huge Douglas-firs for the columns adorning its entrance. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. This image was taken on one such trip to the state of Washington.]


- Image ID: FHS477th    Image Date: [1911]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Prior to terrific conflagrations in 1910, the St. Joe National Forest was famous for its wealth in western white pine timber. In our picture, the tree with a crocodile bark is a sample of the species. To its left appear some western red cedars, to its right some larches, Douglas-firs, and white firs, all without value. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. Returning from a field trip to the west coast in 1911, the Biltmore Forest School visited Idaho, where numerous forest fires had raged the year before in 1910.]


- Image ID: FHS478th    Image Date: [1911]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Under terrible difficulties, the logs of burned white pine which alone have any value are being shot in log chutes or pulled in log slides to a standard-gauge railroad in the bottom of a ravine. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. Returning from a field trip to the west coast in 1911, the Biltmore Forest School visited Idaho, where numerous forest fires had raged the year before in 1910.]


- Image ID: FHS479th    Image Date:  [1911]

[Digital Surrogate]

Image Caption: Under terrible difficulties, the logs of burned white pine which alone have any value are being shot in log chutes or pulled in log slides to a standard-gauge railroad in the bottom of a ravine. [Carl Schenck took his Biltmore Forest School students on a number of field trips to Europe and through various regions of the United States to observe silvicultural and logging practices, especially after he was no longer employed as chief forester of the Biltmore Estate beginning in 1909. Returning from a field trip to the west coast in 1911, the Biltmore Forest School visited Idaho, where numerous forest fires had raged the year before in 1910.]



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